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Same adaptations evolve across different insects
Date:7/24/2012

examining molecular changes in the sodium pump gene, the researchers found the mutation N122H in all four orders of insects studied. Furthermore, they discovered a second mutation in the same gene that also conferred resistance in 11 of the 18 species.

"This is truly a remarkable level of evolutionary repeatability and suggests that evolving resistance to the plant toxin had very few effective options," said Agrawal.

The researchers tested the effectiveness of these gene changes by inserting the single Na,K-ATPase mutations into cell cultures and then dosing those cultures with cardenolides. They found the mutations gave the cells resistance, and when cells were given the two mutations that repeatedly evolved together, they had twice the resistance as cells with a single mutation, implying a synergistic effect.

The standard gene for the sodium pump is essentially the same in all insects, and even mammals carry the gene in a relatively unmodified form. The sodium pump thus originated from a common ancestor hundreds of millions of years ago and is central to the functioning of most animals. Out of that background, insects from different orders over the last 300 million years specialized on plants with cardenolides and evolved resistance independently, and in numerous cases, through exactly the same gene change.

"We can't rerun the tape of life, but we can look back over millions of years of evolutionary divergence and show that there has been tremendous repeatability, even at the molecular level," said Agrawal.


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Contact: John Carberry
johncarberry@cornell.edu
607-255-5353
Cornell University
Source:Eurekalert

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