Navigation Links
Researchers investigate why a limited number of white blood cells are attracted to injured tissue
Date:1/6/2011

As any weekend warrior knows, an errant elbow or a missed ball can put a crimp in an afternoon of fun. The bruising and swelling are painfully obvious, but the processes occurring under the skin remain full of mystery.

What is known is that leukocytes, or white blood cells, mobilize to protect injured body tissue from infection. What is not understood is why some leukocytes but not othersare attracted to damaged tissue.

The response begins when leukocytes travel through blood vessels near the site of the injury and stop. Eight out of ten white blood cells will eventually continue traveling through the blood vessel, while the other two cells will actually enter the tissue to begin fighting against infection. Thanks to a $9.2 million grant from the National Institutes of Health, a research team led by Richard Waugh, chairman of the Biomedical Engineering Department at the University of Rochester, is trying to find the reasons.

As Waugh points out, it's not necessarily bad for leukocytes to pass by the site of an injury. Inflammation occurs when there's injury to the tissue, combined with an influx of white blood cells to fight off potential infection. But the presence of too many white blood cells can damage the very tissue they're designed to protect. Chronic inflammation is responsible for many health problems, including arthritis, heart disease, and stroke. While most research into leukocytes has been from a biochemical point of view, Waugh and his team bring a different perspectiveone that accounts for the role of mechanics and fluid dynamics in the process. Waugh expects a better understanding of leukocyte behavior will result in pharmaceutical treatments that modulate the response of white blood cells.

The project team includes: Minsoo Kim and Ingrid Sarelius of the University of Rochester; Michael King and Moonsoo Jin of Cornell University; Daniel Hammer of the University of Pennsylvania; and Micah Dembo of Boston University.

For the last 10 years the research project has focused on a specific type of leukocyte called neutrophils, which are the first of the white blood cells to show up at the site of an injury or infection. The project team discovered that while many neutrophils attracted to the injured tissue roll along the surface of the blood vessel, only some are "captured" while flowing by, and fewer still actually enter the tissue. Adhesion molecules are expressed in high concentrations at the site of the injury, which makes the surface of the blood vessel stickier and causes many neutrophils to slow down or stop for a few minutes. Waugh likens the situation to fuzz balls rolling along a Velcro surface. The fuzz balls may or may not come to a stop, but they will certainly move more slowly as they remain in contact with the surface. Ultimately, most of the neutrophils will resume their flow through the blood vessel, while others will enter the tissue through specific locations that Waugh refers to as "hot spots."

The neutrophil does more than simply sit there after it comes to a stop. The cell, which has a wrinkled surface, flattens out, allowing more of its receptors to come in contact with the lining of the blood vessel, thereby increasing the level of communication between the neutrophil and the blood vessel wall. If the cell does not flatten out, it won't get enough information and will simply move on.

"We know there are preferred sites for egress and that the cells use some kind of tactile cues to find their way into the tissue space," said Waugh. "But we don't quite know what determines the existence of hot spots. That's one thing we're working to understand."


'/>"/>

Contact: Peter Iglinski
peter.iglinski@rochester.edu
585-273-4726
University of Rochester
Source:Eurekalert

Related biology news :

1. NC State researchers get to root of parasite genome
2. Researchers find animal with ability to survive climate change
3. Researchers find an essential gene for forming ears of corn
4. Researchers note differences between people and animals on calorie restriction
5. Researchers study acoustic communication in deep-sea fish
6. Researchers discover that growing up too fast may mean dying young in honey bees
7. Researchers study how pistachios may improve heart health
8. UI researchers find potentially toxic substance present in Chicago air
9. Researchers develop new self-training gene prediction program for fungi
10. Case Western Reserve University researchers track Chernobyl fallout
11. Childrens National researchers develop novel anti-tumor vaccine
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:4/5/2017)... -- Today HYPR Corp. , leading innovator in ... the HYPR platform is officially FIDO® Certified . ... that empowers biometric authentication across Fortune 500 enterprises and ... 15 million users across the financial services industry, however ... suites and physical access represent a growing portion of ...
(Date:4/4/2017)... , April 4, 2017   EyeLock LLC , ... that the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) ... covers the linking of an iris image with a ... and represents the company,s 45 th issued patent. ... is very timely given the multi-modal biometric capabilities that ...
(Date:3/30/2017)... 2017  On April 6-7, 2017, Sequencing.com will host ... hackathon at Microsoft,s headquarters in Redmond, ... on developing health and wellness apps that provide a ... Genome is the first hackathon for personal genomics ... companies in the genomics, tech and health industries are ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:4/27/2017)... 27, 2017  Kinexum, a distinguished resource for research, ... the appointment of Thomas C. Seoh as ... M.D., Kinexum founder, who becomes Executive Chairman and will ... clients. Thomas Seoh commented, "I ... mission and lead the firm,s remarkable team of life ...
(Date:4/26/2017)... ... April 25, 2017 , ... LABS, Inc. (LABS) announced in December ... its extensive test menu: Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) for ZIKV; and Enzyme Immunoassays (EIAs) ... to offer NAT screening for blood donors under an Investigational New Drug (IND) study ...
(Date:4/26/2017)... , April 26, 2017  Genisphere LLC, ... platform, has signed a collaborative and sponsored research ... Silvia Muro . The overall goal of ... pharmacodynamics of various 3DNA designs and formulations after ... targeting diseases of the vasculature as well as ...
(Date:4/25/2017)... R.I. , April 25, 2017 ... Inc. ("EpiVax") has licensed its novel immune-modulating technology to ... autoimmune disease and allergy. Tregitopes, pronounced ... in human immunoglobulin by EpiVax CEO Annie ... Similar to intravenous immunoglobulin G, an autoimmune disease ...
Breaking Biology Technology: