PULLMAN, Wash. Two nearly identical softballs, both approved for league play, can have dramatically different effects when smacked into a player's head.
Those are the findings from a study conducted by Professor Lloyd Smith in the School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering and project engineer Derek Nevins that they will present at the Asia Pacific Congress on Sports Technology later this month in Hong Kong. Their work was published in the journal, Procedia Engineering.
Smith's group developed a unique model of a softball that they electronically throw at a virtual head to better understand and prevent injuries.
About a quarter of the injuries that happen on the softball field come from players getting hit with a ball, either thrown or batted at them. Most vulnerable are the pitcher, base runner, and third baseman. When they do occur, the injuries are almost always serious, oftentimes including a bone fracture, says Smith.
In many sports, balls are standardized for consistency and performance. But, researchers haven't understood specifically how the balls' different properties and materials affect player safety. They haven't been able to measure just how much or how it hurts when a ball hits a head.
While there have been human models for years, the ball is the hard part, says Smith. Models of softball collisions are especially challenging because of a low Coefficient of Restitution, or how the energy is transferred between the ball and what it hits, he says. Depending on its elasticity and its stiffness, the ball deforms and dissipates energy differently.
The researchers married the ball model they developed with Thums, or the Total Human Model for Safety. Thums sits on a computer screen a perfect, computerized skeletal model of a head developed by Toyota for crash testing. He has a rainbow of different colored eye sockets, teeth, and detailed skull features, including the temporal and parietal
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Washington State University