Navigation Links
Research links telomere length to emphysema risk
Date:7/14/2011

Telomeres, the body's own cellular clocks, may be a crucial factor underlying the development of emphysema, according to research from Johns Hopkins University.

"We found that in mice that have short telomeres, there was a significant increased risk of developing emphysema after exposure to cigarette smoke," said Mary Armanios, MD, assistant professor of oncology at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine.

The study appears online ahead of the print edition of the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine.

Telomeres are DNA protein structures that protect chromosome ends from degradation. Their length is genetically determined, but they also shorten progressively with cell division. Short telomeres are considered one marker of ageing in cells.

"With age, short telomeres accumulate and cause cells to stop dividing. Telomeres can be thought of as 'biological clocks,'" Dr. Armanios explained. "We wanted to determine whether telomere length itself was why susceptibility to emphysema increases with age."

Dr. Armanios and her colleagues examined the role of telomeres in lung disease by studying mice that have shortened telomeres. The mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for six hours a day, five days a week for six months.

The researchers then analyzed the lung tissue and pulmonary function of the mice. "Although the mice had no lung disease at baseline, after exposure to cigarette smoke, they surprisingly developed emphysema. In contrast, mice with long telomeres did not develop lung disease during our experiments," said Dr. Armanios.

In emphysema, alveoli, the small air sacs where oxygen exchange occurs, are permanently lost. Emphysema changes are normally found in older individuals, and occasionally even in those who have never smoked. But they are most commonly found in smokers.

Emphysema is a common cause of disability, and among the top 10 causes of mortality in the United States, it remains on the increase. While smoking cigarettes is the most common risk factor, it is not known why some people are more prone to developing emphysema than others. There are currently no available medical treatments, and affected individuals often require lung transplantation.

"We found that cells with damaged DNA stopped dividing, and lung cells with too much damage could no longer be repaired, thus contributing to the emphysema," she continued. "These results are one of the clearest examples of telomere length, which is an inherited factor, interacting with an environmental insult to cause disease. In fact, our results in mice suggest that short telomeres might contribute to how cigarette smoke accelerates aging in the lung in some individuals."

Dr. Armanios hopes that this new research will lead into new insights into identifying new ways to preserve lung function with age.

"It's important to remember that there is no good reason to smoke and the best way to prevent emphysema is to stop smoking," she said.

Previously, Dr. Armanios and her group had shown that shortened telomeres cause a disease known as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), a disorder of unrelenting scarring in the lung. IPF occurs with emphysema in some individuals, and the incidence of both disorders increases with age and with smoking. "By linking telomere length to both disorders, there is now clear suggestion that they may share a common mechanism that can be traced to telomeres."

Further research must be done to confirm that the observed findings are applicable to humans, and, if so, what mechanisms might underlie them. "Now that we have examined the question of susceptibility in a rigorous genetic model, we can begin to study how telomere length affects emphysema risk in susceptible populations."


'/>"/>

Contact: Keely Savoie
ksavoie@thoracic.org
212-315-8620
American Thoracic Society
Source:Eurekalert

Related biology news :

1. Wistar Institute researcher receives New Innovator award from NIH
2. NC State researchers get to root of parasite genome
3. White Mountain Research Station to host climate change conference
4. Stevens awarded $1M for advanced biofuels research
5. Researchers find animal with ability to survive climate change
6. Researchers find an essential gene for forming ears of corn
7. Researchers note differences between people and animals on calorie restriction
8. Researcher working on destruction of chemical weapons
9. Researchers study acoustic communication in deep-sea fish
10. Researchers discover that growing up too fast may mean dying young in honey bees
11. The Rett Syndrome Research Trust launches operations
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:6/21/2016)... British Columbia , June 21, 2016 /PRNewswire/ ... appointed to the new role of principal product ... been named the director of customer development. Both ... NuData,s chief technical officer. The moves reflect NuData,s ... teams in response to high customer demand and ...
(Date:6/15/2016)... ALBANY, New York , June 15, 2016 ... published a new market report titled "Gesture Recognition Market ... Trends and Forecast, 2016 - 2024". According to the ... at USD 11.60 billion in 2015 and is ... and reach USD 48.56 billion by 2024.  ...
(Date:6/7/2016)... 7, 2016  Syngrafii Inc. and San Antonio ... that includes integrating Syngrafii,s patented LongPen™ eSignature "Wet" ... collaboration will result in greater convenience for SACU ... while maintaining existing document workflow and compliance requirements. ... Highlights: ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:6/23/2016)... June 23, 2016   Boston Biomedical , ... compounds designed to target cancer stemness pathways, announced ... granted Orphan Drug Designation from the U.S. Food ... gastric cancer, including gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) cancer. Napabucasin ... to inhibit cancer stemness pathways by targeting STAT3, ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... ... June 23, 2016 , ... Charm Sciences, Inc. is ... has received AOAC Research Institute approval 061601. , “This is another AOAC-RI approval ... Bob Salter, Vice President of Regulatory and Industrial Affairs. “The Peel Plate methods ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... , ... June 23, 2016 , ... ... announced the launch of the Supplyframe Design Lab . Located in Pasadena, ... explore the future of how hardware projects are designed, built and brought to ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... , June 23, 2016  Blueprint Bio, a ... discoveries to the medical community, has closed its Series ... Matthew Nunez . "We have received a ... the capital we need to meet our current goals," ... provide us the runway to complete validation on the ...
Breaking Biology Technology: