Navigation Links
Reproducing early and often is the key to rapid evolution in plants
Date:10/3/2008

New Haven, Conn. Yale researchers have harnessed the power of 21st century computing to confirm an idea first proposed in 1916 that plants with rapid reproductive cycles evolve faster. Their findings appear in the October 3rd edition of Science.

"Our study has profound consequence for the understanding of evolution made possible by the critical role of the computer in revealing major evolutionary patterns," said senior author Michael Donoghue, the G. Evelyn Hutchinson Professor of Ecology & Evolutionary Biology and Curator of Botany at Yale's Peabody Museum of Natural History

Long involved with the Tree of Life Web Project, which is attempting to reconstruct the "tree" representing the genealogical relationships of all species on Earth, Donoghue has spearheaded the study of flowering plant evolution. In animals, the variation in rate of molecular evolution has been ascribed to differences in generation time, metabolic rate, DNA repair, and body size; in plants, the differences have been more difficult to determine.

The current analysis evaluated DNA sequence data for five major evolutionary lineages within the flowering plants, comparing genetic markers in their chloroplast, nuclear, and mitochondrial genomes. The authors also employed new methods for making some of the largest phylogenetic trees ever built.

A clear pattern emerged. Plants with a shorter generation time from the time they germinate to the time that a seed they produce germinates generally show more rapid rates of molecular evolution. Longer-lived trees and shrubs, by contrast, evolve more slowly and show less variability in their rates of evolution. The study also showed that the difference in rate seen between herbs and woody plants has been maintained through evolutionary time.

"To give an idea of the scope of the data managed in this study, the largest data set contained over 4500 species, while typical tests of such hypotheses are based on less than 50 species in total," said Yale graduate student and lead author Stephen Smith.

For each branch on each limb of the "tree," the researchers calculated the rate of molecular evolution by determining the number of DNA nucleotide substitutions per site per million years.

Their analyses highlight the difficulty in using molecular data to infer the timing of evolutionary events, and suggest that new strategies may be necessary in using DNA sequence "barcodes" to identify plant species, and in setting conservation priorities.

"Our data indicate that some kinds of plants will be easy to ID and others will be much more difficult," said Smith. "The slower a plant species evolves, the harder it is to differentiate it from related plants. But our analyses point in a good new direction."


'/>"/>

Contact: Janet Rettig Emanuel
janet.emanuel@yale.edu
203-432-2157
Yale University
Source:Eurekalert

Related biology news :

1. 60 second test could help early diagnosis of common brain diseases
2. Restless legs syndrome affects nearly 2 percent of US/UK children
3. Bleeding, not inflammation, is major cause of early lung infection death
4. Pig study sheds new light on the colonisation of Europe by early farmers
5. Color contrast is seen by the brain early doors
6. Extra gene copies were enough to make early humans mouths water
7. Was ability to run early mans Achilles heel?
8. New technique can be breakthrough for early cancer diagnosis
9. Yam bean a nearly forgotten crop
10. NIH awards nearly $23M to University of Chicago for translational research
11. Yam bean a nearly forgotten crop
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:4/11/2017)... N.Y. , April 11, 2017 ... fingerprints, but researchers at the New York University ... College of Engineering have found that partial similarities ... security systems used in mobile phones and other ... thought. The vulnerability lies in the ...
(Date:4/5/2017)... , April 5, 2017 Today ... announcing that the server component of the HYPR platform ... for providing the end-to-end security architecture that empowers biometric ... HYPR has already secured over 15 million users ... including manufacturers of connected home product suites and physical ...
(Date:3/30/2017)... ANGELES , March 30, 2017  On April ... Hack the Genome hackathon at Microsoft,s ... exciting two-day competition will focus on developing health and ... Hack the Genome is the ... been tremendous. The world,s largest companies in the genomics, ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:10/11/2017)... ... October 11, 2017 , ... Disappearing forests and increased emissions are the main ... people each year. Especially those living in larger cities are affected by air pollution ... of the most pollution-affected countries globally - decided to take action. , “I knew ...
(Date:10/10/2017)... Philadelphia, PA (PRWEB) , ... October 10, 2017 ... ... University City Science Center’s FirstHand program has won a US2020 STEM Mentoring Award. ... accept the award for Excellence in Volunteer Experience from US2020. , US2020’s mission ...
(Date:10/10/2017)... ... 10, 2017 , ... The Pittcon Program Committee is pleased ... scientists who have made outstanding contributions to analytical chemistry and applied spectroscopy. Each ... leading conference and exposition for laboratory science, which will be held February 26-March ...
(Date:10/9/2017)... ... October 09, 2017 , ... ... the medical journal, Epilepsia, Brain Sentinel’s SPEAC® System which uses the surface ... detecting generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS) using surface electromyography (sEMG). The prospective multicenter ...
Breaking Biology Technology: