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Reportlinker Adds Biomarkers - technologies, markets and companies

NEW YORK, Sept. 7 /PRNewswire/ -- announces that a new market research report is available in its catalogue:

Biomarkers - technologies,markets and companies


This report follows the broad definition of a biomarker as a characteristic that can be objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biological or pathogenic processes as well as pharmacological responses to a therapeutic intervention. Tests based on biomarkers have been around for more than half a century, but interest in their application for diagnostics and drug discovery as well as development has increased remarkably since the beginning of the 21st century. This report describes different types of biomarkers and their discovery using various "-omics" technologies such as proteomics and metabolomics. Molecular diagnostics technologies are used for the discovery of biomarkers and new tests are also based on biomarker.

Currently the most important applications of biomarkers are in drug discovery and development. The role of biomarkers in various therapeutic areas particularly cancer, cardiovascular diseases and disorders of the central nervous system, is described. Biomarkers are useful not only for diagnosis of some of these diseases but also for understanding the pathomechanism as well as a basis for development of therapeutics.

Biomarkers will facilitate the combination of therapeutics with diagnostics and will thus play an important role in the development of personalized medicine. Biomarkers play a role in use of pharmacogenetics, pharmacogenomics and pharmacoproteomics for development of personalized medicine.

Many of the regulatory issues concerning biomarkers are related to genomics, proteomics, molecular diagnostics and pharmacogenomics/pharmacogenetics. Validation of biomarkers and their role in clinical trials is discussed.

Biomarker markets are estimated from 2009 to 2019 according to share of markets for various technologies and applications: proteomics, metabolomics, molecular diagnostics, drug discovery, clinical trials, and bioinformatics. Market values are further split according to therapeutic applications and major geographical areas. Unfulfilled needs in biomarkers are identified as well as the drivers for biomarker markets. Challenges facing the biomarker industry and strategies for developing biomarker markets are discussed.

A large number of companies with varying technical backgrounds are involved in biomarkers and 265 of these are profiled in part 2 of the report with classification into various categories.These also include major pharmaceutical companies. There is tabulation of 479 collaborations between companies and additional academic collaborations are mentioned in the individual profiles of companies. The report is supplemented by 800 references, 62 tables and 12 figures


0. Executive Summary 19

1. Introduction 21

Definitions 21

Historical aspects of biomarkers 21

Classification of biomarkers 22

Biological marker as response to therapeutic intervention 23

Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics biomarkers 23

Predictive biomarkers 23

Valid biomarkers 24

Types of biomarkers 24

Genes as biomarkers 24

Proteins as biomarkers 25

Proteomics 25

DNA biomarkers 26

Mitochondrial DNA 26

Mitochondrial mutations 26

RNA biomarkers 26

Transcriptomics 27

MicroRNAs 28

Metabolomics 28

Glycomics 28

Single nucleotide polymorphisms 29

Haplotyping 29

Cell biomarkers of disease 30

Stem cell biomarkers 30

Association of stem cell biomarkers with disease 30

Cancer stem cell biomarkers 30

Endoglin as a functional biomarker of stem cells 31

p75NTR as a biomarker to isolate adipose tissue-derived stem cells 31

Protein expression profile as biomarker of stem cells 31

STEMPRO? EZChek? for analysis of biomarkers of hESCs 32

SSEA-4 as biomarker of MSCs 32

Gaseous mediators as biomarkers of disease 32

Autoantibodies as biomarkers of autoimmune diseases 32

Comparison of various types of biomarkers 33

Biomarkers and systems biology 33

Systems biology approach to biomarker identification 35

Relation of biomarkers to other technologies and healthcare 35

Biomarkers and translational medicine 36

Limitations of use of biomarkers in healthcare 36

2. Technologies for Discovery of Biomarkers 39

Introduction 39

The ideal biomarker 39

Genomic technologies 39

Gene expression 39

Whole genome expression array 40

Gene expression profiling on whole blood samples 41

Profiling gene expression patterns of white blood cells 41

Tissue microarrays for study of biomarkers 41

Epigenomic technologies 42

Discovery of methylation biomarkers 42

Proteomic technologies 43

2D GE 44

Biomarker Amplification Filter 45

CellCarta® proteomics platform 45

Isotope-coded affinity tags 46

Liquid chromatography-MS/MS 46

Lucid Proteomics System 46

Magnetics beads for protein biomarker discovery 47

MASStermind™ 47

Mass spectrometry 47

2D PAGE and mass spectrometry 48

Imaging mass spectrometry 48

MALDI mass spectrometry for biomarker discovery 49

Quantitative tandem MS 50

Single-molecule mass spectrometry using a nanopore 50

Requirements for MS-based proteomic biomarker development 51

Protein tomography 51

Protein biochips/microarrays and biomarkers 51

Antibody-based biomarker discovery 52

Detection of biomarkers using peptide array technology 52

Protein nanobiochip 52

Quantification of protein biomarkers 53

Mass spectrometry for quantification of protein biomarkers 53

Real-time PCR for quantification of protein biomarkers 53

CyTOF for quantification of biomarkers 53

Search for biomarkers in body fluids 54

Challenges and strategies for discovey of protein biomarkers in plasma 54

3-D structure of CD38 as a biomarker 55

BD™ Free Flow Electrophoresis System 55

Isotope tags for relative and absolute quantification 56

Plasma protein microparticles as biomarkers 56

Proteome partitioning 57

Stable isotope tagging methods 57

Technology to measure both the identity and size of the biomarker 58

Biomarkers in the urinary proteome 58

Peptides in body fluids and tissues as biomarkers of disease 58

Analysis of peptides in bodily fluids 59

Serum peptidome patterns 60

SISCAPA method for quantitating proteins and peptides in plasma 60

Comparison of proteomic profiling technologies for discovery of biomarkers 60

Verification for interlaboratory reproducibility of protein biomarkers 61

Significance of similar protein biomarkers in different tissues 61

Glycomic technologies 62

Metabolomic technologies 62

Genome-wide association studies for identification of metabolic biomarkers 63

Lipid profiling 63

Mass spectrometry-based kits for discovery of metabolic biomarkers in plasma 64

Role of metabolomics in biomarker identification and pattern recognition 64

Urinary profiling by capillary electrophoresis 64

Validation of biomarkers in large-scale human metabolomics studies 64

Lipidomics 65

Disease biomarkers in breath 65

Portable breath test for volatile organic compounds 66

Detection of breath biomarkers by sensation technology 66

Detection of breath biomarkers optical frequency comb spectroscopy 66

Fluorescent indicators for biomarkers 67

Molecular imaging technologies 67

Computer tomography 67

Magnetic resonance imaging 68

Positron emission tomography 68

Advantages of imaging biomarkers 69

Monitoring in vivo gene expression by molecular imaging 69

Molecular imaging in vivo as a biomarker 69

Challenges and future prospects of molecular imaging 70

Basic research in molecular imaging 70

Imaging intracellular NADH as a biomarker of disease 70

Devices for molecular imaging 71

Imaging biomarkers in clinical trials 71

Molecular imaging in clinical practice 71

Nuclear magnetic resonance 71

Chemical derivatization to enhance biomarker detection by NMR 72

Fluxomics by using NMR 72

Nanobiotechnology 73

Nanomaterials for biolabeling 73

Quantum dot molecular labels 74

Bioconjugated QDs for multiplexed profiling of biomarkers 74

Magnetic nanotags for multipley detection of biomarkers 75

Nanoproteomics and biomarkers 75

High-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility mass spectrometry 75

Nanoparticles for molecular imaging 75

Nanoparticles for discovering biomarkers 76

Nanosensors for measuring biomarkers in blood 76

Nanobiochip sensor technique for analysis of oral cancer biomarkers 77

Nucleoprotein nanodevices for detection of cancer biomarkers 77

Future prospects of application of nanobiotechnology for biomarkers 77

Bioinformatics 78

Biomarker Workflow Guide 78

Analysis of microarray data for selecting useful biomarkers 78

Role of bioinformatics in discovery of proteomic biomarkers 79

Role of bioinformatics in detection of cancer biomarkers 79

Biomarker databases 80

Gene networks as biomarkers 80

3. Biomarkers and Molecular Diagnostics 81

Introduction 81

Molecular diagnostic technologies 81

Polymerase chain reaction 81

Amplification 81

Target selection 82

Detection of amplified DNA 82

Limitations of PCR 82

Real-time PCR systems 83

Limitations of real-time PCR 83

Future applications of real-time Q-PCR 84

Combined PCR-ELISA 84

Non-PCR methods 84

Linked Linear Amplification 85

Transcription mediated amplification 85

Rapid analysis of gene expression 85

WAVE nucleic acid fragment analysis system 85

DNA probes with conjugated minor groove binder 86

Rolling circle amplification technology 86

Gene-based diagnostics through RCAT 87

RCAT-immunodiagnostics 87

RCAT-biochips 88

RCAT-pharmacogenomics 88

Circle-to-circle amplification 88

Biochips and microarrays 88

Applications of biochips/microarrays 89

Role of biochip/microarrays in discovery of biomarkers 89

Biomarkers and high throughput molecular screening 90

Detection and expression profiling of miRNA 90

Real-time PCR for expression profiling of miRNAs 91

Real-time PCR for expression profiling of miRNAs 91

Use of LNA to explore miRNA 91

Microarrays for analysis of miRNA gene expression 91

4. Biomarkers for Drug Discovery & Development 93

Introduction 93

Biomarker technologies for drug discovery 94

Proteomics-based biomarkers for drug discovery 94

Chemoproteomics 94

Activity-based chemical proteomics 94

Transcriptomics for drug discovery 95

Metabolomics for drug discovery 95

Biomarkers and drug safety 96

Biomarkers of adverse drug reactions 96

Applications of biomarkers in drug safety studies 96

Genomic technologies for toxicology biomarkers 97

Proteomic technologies for toxicology biomarkers 97

Metabonomic technologies for toxicology biomarkers 98

Integration of genomic and metabonomic data to develop toxicity biomarkers 98

Toxicology studies based on biomarkers 98

Biomarkers of hepatotoxicity 99

Biomarkers of nephrotoxicity 100

Cardiotoxicity 102

Neurotoxicity 102

Applications of biomarkers for drug development 103

Application of metabonomics/metabolomics for drug development 103

Role of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic biomarkers in drug development 103

Molecular imaging as a biomarker in drug development 104

Molecular imaging in preclinical studies 104

Molecular imaging in clinical trials 105

Prospects of molecular imaging in drug discovery and development 106

Biomarkers in clinical trials 106

NIH recommendations on the use of biomarkers in clinical trials 107

Advantages of biomarkers for drug development 108

Limitations and problems with use of biomarkers in clinical trials 109

Application of biomarkers by the pharmaceutical companies 109

Use of biomarkers in relation to stage of drug discovery and development 110

Drug development in cardiovascular disorders 111

Drug development in neurological disorders 111

Future prospects of biomarker-based drug development 112

The Biomarker Alliance 112

Molecular Libraries and Imaging Roadmap of NIH 112

Biomarkers Consortium 113

Pharmacogenomic biomarker information in drug labels 114

5. Role of Biomarkers in Healthcare 115

Introduction 115

Biomarkers of inflammation 115

ESR and CRP as biomarkers of inflammation 116

Biomarkers of oxidative stress 116

1,4-dihydroxynonane-mercapturic acid 116

Oxidative DNA damage 117

Proteins as biomarkers of oxidative stress in diseases 117

Testing for oxidative stress 117

Biomarkers in metabolic disorders 117

Biomarkers of acute intermittent porphyria 117

Liver X receptors 118

Biomarkers of diabetes mellitus 118

Biomarkers of hyperglycemia 119

Biomarkers of diabetes-associated oxidative stress 119

Biomarkers of inflammation associated with diabetes 120

Biomarkers of renal complications in diabetes mellitus type 2 120

Biomarkers of diabesity 120

Glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetes mellitus 120

Lack of C-peptide as biomarker of complications of diabetes type 1 120

Serum retinol binding protein 4 as biomarker of insulin resistance 121

Biomarkers of metabolic syndrome 121

Adiponectin 121

Biomarkers in immune disorders 122

Biomarkers relevant to organ transplantation 122

Biomarkers of graft versus host disease 122

Biomarkers of renal allograft failure 124

Biomarkers of renal transplant tolerance 124

Biomarkers of lung transplant rejection 125

Systemic lupus erythematosus 125

Current management and need for biomarkers 126

Role of collaborative efforts and databases of SLE biomarkers 126

C4d-bearing reticulocytes 126

Adiponectin 127


Genetic loci of SLE 127

Epigenetic biomarkers of SLE 127

Biomarkers of musculoskeletal disorders 127

Biomarkers of rheumatoid arthritis 128

Biomarkers of spondylarthritis 128

Biomarkers of osteoarthritis 129

Biomarkers of osteoporosis 130

Dual x-ray absorptiometry 131

Bone imaging with quantitative CT and MRI 131

Assays for detection of biomarkers of osteoporosis 131

Biomarkers of infectious diseases 131

Chemokines as biomarkers of infection 132

Circulating CPS-1 as biomarkers of organ damage in sepsis 133

Endotoxin 133

Procalcitonin 133

Application of proteomics for discovering biomarkers of infections 134

Systemic inflammatory response syndrome 135

Nitric oxide as a biomarker of sepsis 135

Tuberculosis 135

Conventional diagnosis of tuberculosis 136

Molecular diagnostics for tuberculosis 136

Biomarkers for tuberculosis 137

Biomarkers of pulmonary tuberculosis in the breath 137

Biomarkers of viral infections 137

Viral hepatitis 138

Biomarkers of SARS 140

Biomarkers of HIV 140

Biomarkers in parasitic infections 141

Role of biomarkers in malaria 141

Identification of biomarkers in Schistosomiasis infections 142

Biomarkers of liver disease 142

Breath biomarkers of liver disease 142

Biomarkers of viral hepatitis B and C 143

Biomarkers of liver injury 144

Biomarkers of liver cirrhosis 144

FibroMax 144

Biomarkers of pancreatitis 144

Biomarkers of renal disease 145

Biomarkers of lupus nephritis 145

Biomarkers of diabetic nephropathy 145

Cystatin C as biomarker of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) 146

Estimated GFR and albuminuria as biomarkers of chronic kidney disease 146

Proteomic biomarkers of acute kidney injury 146

Biomarkers of pulmonary diseases 146

Biomarkers of oxidative stress in lung diseases 147

Biomarkers of survival in acute respiratory distress syndrome 148

Urinary NO as biomarker 148

Plasma biomarkers related to inflammation 148

Pulmonary surfactant proteins as biomarkers for lung diseases 148

Cytokine/chemokine biomarkers of SARS 148

Biomarkers of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 149

Increased expression of PIGF as a biomarker of COPD 149

Chromagranin A (CgA) as biomarker of airway obstruction in smokers 149

BNP as a biomarker of chronic pulmonary disease 150

Alpha1-antitrypsin gene polymorphisms predisposing to emphysema 150

Biomarkers of asthma 150

Comparison of biomarkers of asthma and COPD 150

Exaled NO as a biomarker of asthma 150

Cytokines as biomarkers of asthma severity 151

Biomarker for rhinovirus-induced asthma exacerbation 152

Biomarkers for predicting response to corticosteroid therapy 152

IgE as guide to dosing of omalizumab for asthma 152

Endothelin-1 in exhaled breath as biomarker of asthma 153

Biomarkers for cystic fibrosis 153

Biomarkers of pulmonary embolism 153

Biomarkers in gynecology and obstetrics 154

Biomarkers of menopause 154

Biomarkers of premenstrual dysphoric disorder 155

Biomarkers of endometriosis 155

Biomarkers for preeclampsia 156

Protein biomarker of preeclampsia in urine 156

Protein biomarkers of preeclampsia in CSF 156

Protein HtrA1 as biomarker for preeclampsia 157

sFlt1 and soluble endoglin as biomarkers of preeclampsia 157

RNA biomarkers 158

Biomarkers of premature birth 158

Biomarkers of oxidative stress in complicated pregnancies 159

Fetal biomarkers in maternal blood 159

Biomarkers for genetic disorders 159

Biomarkers for Down's syndrome 159

Biomarkers for muscular dystrophy 160

Biomarkers of phenylketonuria 160

Genetic biomarkers for psoriasis 161

Biomarkers of lysosomal storage disorders 161

Biomarkers of aging 162

Cellular biomarker of aging of the brain 163

Effect of calorie restriction on biomarkers of longevity 163

Genes as biomarkers of aging 164

Mitochondrial mutations as biomarkers of aging 164

Telomere attrition as aging biomarker 164

Gene variants as determinants of biological age 165

Genetic signatures of longevity 165

Low serum thyroid hormone level as biomarker of longevity 165

Role of bioinformatics in search for biomarkers of aging 165

Study of biomarkers of aging in a genetically homogeneous population 166

Biomarkers of miscellaneous disorders 166

Biomarkers of chronic fatigue syndrome 166

Biomarkers of inflammatory bowel disease 166

Biomarkers of erectile dysfunction 167

Biomarkers of heat stroke 168

Nasal nitric oxide as a biomarker of response to rhinosinusitis therapy 168

Biomarkers common to multiple diseases 168

Biomarkers and nutrition 169

Biomarkers in nutritional epidemiology 169

Biomarkers of nutritional status 169

Biomarkers of branched chain amino acid status 170

Biomarkers of caloric restriction 170

Biomarkers of malnutrition 170

Proteomic biomarkers and nutrition 171

Biomarkers of gene-environmental interactions in human disease 171

6. Biomarkers of Cancer 173

Introduction 173

The ideal biomarker for cancer 173

Single vs multiple biomarkers of cancer 174

Types of cancer biomarkers 174

HER3 as biomarker of cancer 175

DNA repair biomarkers 175

miRNAs as biomarkers in cancer 175

Circulating miRNAs for cancer detection 177

Diagnostic value of miRNA in cancer 177

Biomarkers of epigenetic gene silencing in cancer 177

Immunologic biomarkers of cancer 178

Molecular diagnostic techniques for cancer 178

Technologies for detection of cancer biomarkers 179

Genomic technologies for cancer biomarkers 179

Cold-PCR 179

Genome analysis at the molecular level 180

Sequencing-based approaches for detection of cancer biomarkers 180

Early detection of tumor suppressor gene mutations 180

Biomarkers of PTEN tumor suppressor gene status 181

HAAH as a biomarker for cancer 181

KRAS as a biomarker of cancer 182

Telomerase as a biomarker of cancer 182

Digital karyotyping for cancer biomarkers 182

LigAmp for detection of gene mutations in cancer 183

Mitochondrial DNA as a cancer biomarker 183

Tissue microarrays for study of cancer biomarkers 183

Molecular fingerprinting of cancer 184

Biomarkers of inflammation in cancer 185

Proteomic technologies for detecting biomarkers of cancer 185

2D PAGE 186

Antibody-based detection of protein biomarkers 186

Aptamer-based molecular probes for cancer biomarker discovery 187

Cancer immunomics to identify autoantibody signatures 187

Desorption electrospray ionization for detection of cancer biomarkers 188

Detection of circulating nucleosomes in serum of cancer patients 188

Detection of tumor markers with ProteinChip technology 188

eTag assay system for cancer biomarkers 189

Glycoprotein biomarkers of cancer 189

HER-2/neu oncoprotein as biomarkers for cancer 190

Humoral proteomics 190

Laser capture microdissection 190

Membrane-type serine protease-1 191

Phage display technology 191

Proteomic analysis of cancer cell mitochondria 191

Proteomic technologies for detection of autoimmune biomarkers 192


Serum proteome analysis for early detection of cancer 192

Tissue proteomics for discovery of cancer biomarkers 193

Metabolomic biomarkers of cancer 193

Choline phospholipid biomarkers of cancer 193

Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 194

Detection of drug resistance in cancer by metabolic profiling 194

Epitomics for the early detection of cancer 194

Detection of biomarkers of DNA methylation 195

PCR with bisulfite for detecting DNA methylation biomarkers in cancer 196

MDScan? microarray technology 197

Rubicon MethylPlex technology 197

Epigenomics Marker Machine for DNA methylation biomarkers 198

Sequenom's integrated genetic analysis platform 198

Histone deacetylase 198

Mucins as epigenetic biomarkers in epithelial cancers 199

Nanobiotechnology for early detection of cancer to improve treatment 199

Selective expression of biomarkers by cancer compared with normal tissues 199

Ultrasound radiation to enhance release of a tumor biomarker 200

In vivo imaging of cancer biomarkers 200

Computer tomography 200

Optical systems for in vivo molecular imaging of cancer 200

Positron emission tomography 201

Imaging of tumor oxygenation and microvascular permeability by MRI 201

Xenon-enhanced MRI 201

Kallikrein gene family and cancer biomarkers 202

Circulating cancer cells in blood as biomarkers of cancer 202

Applications of cancer biomarkers 203

Use of biomarkers for cancer classification 203

Cancer classification using microarrays 203

Proteomic classification of cancer 204

Use of biomarkers for early detection of cancer 204

Applications of biomarkers for cancer diagnosis 204

Methylated DNA sequences as cancer biomarkers 204

MicroRNA expression profiling for diagnosis of human cancers 205

MUC4 as a diagnostic biomarker in cancer 205

Applications of biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and therapy 206

Asparagine synthetase as biomarker for therapy with L-asparaginase 206

Peptide-based agents for targeting cancer biomarkers 207

Biomarkers for assessing efficacy of cancer therapy 207

ERCC1-XPF expression as a biomarker of response to chemotherapy 207

P53 expression level as biomarker of efficacy of cancer gene therapy 207

Biomarkers of angiogenesis for developing antiangiogenic therapy 207

Biomarkers of response to antiangiogenic agent brivanib alaninate 208

Circulating endothelial cells as targets for antiangiogenic drugs 208

DCE-MRI biomarkers for evaluation of antiangiogenic agents 208

Combination of soluble biomarkers of angiogenesis with imaging 209

Tumor endothelial markers 209

VEGF signalling inhibitors as biomarkers 210

Biomarkers of prognosis in cancer treatment 210

Biomarkers of drug resistance in cancer 210

A systems approach to biomarkers of innate drug resistance 211

Epithelial membrane protein-1 as a biomarker of gefitinib resistance 211

Methylation biomarkers of drug resistance in cancer 211

Biomarkers of radiation exposure 212

Role of biomarkers in drug development in oncology 212

Molecular imaging of tumor as a guide to drug development 213

Use of PET to assess response to anticancer drugs 213

Use of MRI to assess response to anticancer drugs 214

Biomarkers in plucked hair for assessing cancer therapy 214

Molecular targets of anticancer drugs as biomarkers 214

Safety biomarkers in oncology studies 215

Role of biomarkers in phase I clinical trials of anticancer drugs 215

Biomarkers according to location/type of cancer 215

Bladder cancer biomarkers 215

Detection of FGFR3 mutations in urine for diagnosis of bladder cancer 216

NMP22 BladderChek 216

Urinary telomerase as biomarker for detection of bladder cancer 216

Concluding remarks abut biomarkers of urinary cancer 216

Brain cancer biomarkers 217

Biomarkers to predict response to EGFR inhibitors 217

CD133 as biomarker of resistance to radiotherapy 218

Circulating microvesicles as biomarkers 218

CSF protein profiling 218

CSF attractin as a biomarker of malignant astrocytoma 218

Methylation profiling of brain tumors 219

Metabolite biomarkers of brain tumors 220

miRNAs as biomarkers of brain tumors 220

MRI biomarker for response of brain tumor to therapy 220

Multigene predictor of outcome in GBM 221

Neuroimaging biomarkers combined with DNA microarray analysis 221

Receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase ? as biomarker of gliomas 221

Serum protein fingerprinting 221

VEGF-R2 as biomarker of angiogenesis in brain tumors 222

Breast cancer biomarkers 222

Biomarkers of breast cancer in breath 223

Biomarkers for breast cancer in nipple aspiration fluid 223

Circulating nucleic acid biomarkers of breast cancer 224

Flow cytometry for quantification of biomarker expression patterns 224

Plasma proteomics for biomarkers of breast cancer 224

Quantitative realtime PCR assays for biomarker validation 225

Cdk6 as a biomarker of breast cancer 225

Centromere protein-F 226

Carbonic anhydrase IX 226

COX-2 as a biomarker of breast cancer 226

Glycomic biomarkers of breast cancer 227

HER-2/neu oncoprotein 227

High mobility group protein A2 228

Hypermethylated genes as biomarkers of metastatic breast cancer 228

Lipocalin 2 as biomarker of breast cancer progression 229

Long intervening non-coding RNAs 229

Mammaglobin 229

miRNA biomarkers of breast cancer 230

p27 expression as biomarker for survival after chemotherapy 231

Podocalyxin 231

Progranulin as a biomarker of breast cancer 231

Proliferating cell nuclear antigen 231

Protein kinase C as a predictive biomarker of metastatic breast cancer 232

Retinoblastoma tumor suppressor gene as a biomarker 232

Riboflavin carrier protein 232

Risk of invasive cancer after diagnosis of ductal carcinoma in situ 233

Serum CA 15-3 as biomarker of prognosis in advanced breast cancer 233

Suppressor of deltex protein 233

Tumor microenvironment as biomarker of metastasis in breast cancer 234

Type III TGF-? receptor as regulator of cancer progression 234

Diagnostic tests based on breast cancer genes 234

Prognostic role of breast cancer genes 235

Protein biomarkers for breast cancer prevention 236

Biomarkers to evaluate efficacy of chemoprevention 237

Biomarkers of response to chemotherapy of breast cancer 237

Cervical cancer biomarkers 238

Gastrointestinal cancer biomarkers 239

Gastric cancer biomarkers 239

Colorectal cancer biomarkers 240

Head and neck cancer 244

Leukemia biomarkers 245

Chromosome translocations in leukemias 245

DNA methylation biomarkers in leukemia 246

Gene mutations as biomarkers in leukemia 246

Molecular diagnostic techniques for leukemia 246

Proteomic technologies for discovering biomarkers of leukemia 247

Biomarkers of chronic lymphocytic leukemia 247

Biomarkers of chronic myeloid leukemia 248

Biomarkers of drug resistance in leukemia 248

Biomarkers of myelodysplasitic syndromes 248

Lymphoma biomarkers 249

Liver cancer biomarkers 249

Lung cancer biomarkers 250

Autoantibodies as biomarkers in lung cancer 251

Biomarkers associated with neuroendocrine differentiation in NSCLC 251

Biomarkers of chronic inflammation in lung cancer 252

Biomarkers for predicting sensitivity to chemotherapy in lung cancer 252

Biomarkers for prediction of sensitivity to EGFR inhibitors 253

Circulating tumor cells as biomarkers 254

Gene expression profiling for biomarkers of lung cancer 254

Methylation biomarkers of lung cancer 254

miRNA biomarkers in lung cancer 255

Proteomic biomarkers in exaled breath condensate 255

Serum protein biomarkers of lung cancer 256

tNOX as biomarker of lung cancer 256

Tumor-derived DNA and RNA markers in blood 256

Volatile organic compounds in the exhaled breath 257

Malignant pleural mesothelioma 257

Melanoma biomarkers 257

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma biomarkers 259

Proteomic biomarkers of nasopharyngeal cancer 260

miRNA biomarkers of nasopharyngeal carcinoma 260

Oral cancer biomarkers 261

Ovarian cancer biomarkers 261

Epitomics approach for ovarian cancer biomarkers in serum 262

Gene expression studies in ovarian cancer 263

HtrA1 as a biomarker of response to chemotherapy in ovarian cancer 263

Mutation of genes in ovarian cancer 264

Serum biomarkers of ovarian cancer prognosis 264

Serum albumin-associated peptides and proteins 264

Multiplex assays for biomarkers of ovarian cancer 265

Concluding remarks on biomarker-based tests of ovarian cancer 266

Pancreatic cancer biomarkers 266

Discovery and validation of pancreatic cancer biomarkers 267

Cancer stem cells as biomarkers of pancreatic cancer 267

Histone modifications used as biomarkers in pancreatic cancer 267

miRNA biomarkers of pancreatic cancer 268

Proteomic biomarkers of pancreatic cancer 269

Prostate cancer 270

Adipose tissue-derived biomarkers of obesity-related prostate cancer 270

B7-H3 as biomarker of prostate cancer 271

Detection of prostate cancer biomarkers in urine 271

Detection of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia 272

Epigenetic biomarkers of prostate cancer 272

Gene expression analysis of prostate cancer 273

Genetic biomarkers of prostate cancer 273

Huntingtin Interacting Protein 1 overexpression in prostate cancer 274

Id proteins expression in prostate cancer 274

Identification of prostate cancer mRNA biomarkers 274

Integrative genomic and proteomic profiling of prostate cancer 274

LCM for diagnosis of prostate cancer 275

Loss of p27 as predictor of recurrence of prostate cancer 275

Microarray for diagnosis of prostate cancer 275

miRNA biomarkers of prostate cancer 276

Prostate cancer biomarkers in semen 276

PSA as biomarker of prostate cancer 276

ProPSA as biomarker of prostate cancer 277

Prostate Health Index 277

PSMA as biomarker of prostate cancer 277

Sarcosine as a metabolic biomarker of prostate cancer 277

Serum HAAH as biomarker of prostate cancer 278

Silenced CDH13 gene as a biomarker of cancer 278

Serum-protein fingerprinting 278

Tests for prostate cancer based on genetic dislocations 279

Concluding remarks on biomarkers of prostate cancer 279

Renal cancer biomarkers 279

Gene expression profile of RCC for biomarkers 279

miRNA biomarkers of renal cancer 280

Use of proteomics for detection of RCC biomarkers 280

Use of RCC biomarkers for prognosis and therapy 280

Thyroid cancer biomarkers 281

Gene expression biomarkers of thyroid cancer 281

Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B as risk factor for thyroid cancer 282

miRNA biomarkers of thyroid cancer 282

Biochemical biomarkers of thyroid cancer 282

Role of the NCI in molecular diagnosis of cancer 283

The Cancer Genome Anatomy Project 283

Molecular profiling of cancer 283

Cancer Genome Atlas 284

Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility Project 284

Oncology Biomarker Qualification Initiative 285

Role of NCI in cancer biomarker development and validation 285

COBRED project for cancer biomarker research in Europe 286

Future prospects for cancer biomarkers 287

Cancer biomarker research at academic institutions 287

Future prospects and challenges in the discovery of cancer biomarkers 287

7. Biomarkers of Disorders of the Nervous System 289

Introduction 289

Discovery of biomarkers for neurological disorders 289

Biomarker identification in the CSF using proteomics 290

Biomarker identification in the CSF using lipidomics 290

Cerebral microdialysis for the study of biomarkers of cerebral metabolism 290

Detection of protein biomarkers of CNS disorders in the blood 291

Brain imaging for detection of biomarkers 291

Data mining for biomarkers of neurological disorders 292

Antibodies as biomarkers in disorders of the nervous system 292

Biomarkers of neural regeneration 292

Biomarkers of disruption of blood-brain barrier 293

Biomarkers of neurotoxicity 293

Glial fibrillary acidic protein as biomarker of neurotoxicity 294

Single-stranded DNA as a biomarker of neuronal apoptosis 294

Biomarkers of neurogenetic disorders 294

Charcot-Marie Tooth disease 295

Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy 295

Fragile X syndrome 296

Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies 296

Hereditary metabolic storage disorders with neurologic manifestations 297

Gaucher disease 297

Pompe's disease 297

Mitochondrial disorders affecting the nervous system 297

Spinal muscular atrophy 298

Biomarkers of neurodegenerative disorders 298

Protein aggregation as a bimarker of aging and neurodegeneration 299

Biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease 299

The ideal biomarker for AD 301

Protein biomarkers of AD in CSF 301

Amyloid precursor protein 303

Tau proteins in CSF 304

Tests for the detection of A? in CSF 304

Monitoring of synthesis and clearance rates of A? in the CSF 304

Tests combining CSF tau and A? 305

CSF sulfatide as a biomarker for AD 306

Glycerophosphocholine as CSF biomarker in AD 306

CSF Reelin as biomarker of AD 306

Urine tests for AD 306

Plasma protein biomarkers of AD 307

Protein kinase C in red blood cells 307

Detection of aggregated misfolded proteins in the blood 308

Lymphocyte Proliferation Test 308

A biomarker-based skin test for AD 308

Radioiodinated clioquinol as a biomarker for A? 309

Nanotechnology to measure A?-derived diffusible ligands 309

Simultaneous measurement of several biomarkers for AD 309

Use of biomarkers to predict AD in patients with MCI 310

Genetic tests for AD 310

Gene expression patterns in AD 311

Magnetic resonance spectroscopy in AD 311

MRI for biomarkers of AD 312

PET scanning for biomarkers of AD 313

Targeting of chemokine receptor as biomarker for brain imaging 314

Plasma biomarkers of drug response in AD 315

PredictAD project 315

Concluding remarks about biomarkers for AD 315

Biomarkers of Parkinson's disease 316

Biomarkers of PD based on gene expression in blood 316

Cardiac denervation as a biomarker of PD 317

Imaging biomarkers of PD 317

Metabolic brain networks as biomarkers 317

Metabonomic biomarker profile for diagnosis and monitoring of PD 318

Protein biomarkers of PD 318

Serum vitamin D as a biomarker of PD 318

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(Date:3/5/2020)... ... March 05, 2020 , ... Diagenode, ... and MGI Tech (MGI), a subsidiary of global genomics leader BGI Group, today ... the United States, Europe and Asia Pacific. , Under the terms of ...
(Date:3/4/2020)... ... March 04, 2020 , ... ... and services, announced it has been nominated as a finalist in the category ... This nomination comes as VGXI expedites manufacturing of a DNA vaccine against the ...
(Date:3/2/2020)... ... 02, 2020 , ... Toronto-based clinical research organization (CRO) and regulatory consulting firm, ... just 5 minutes south of Clarksburg on a farm on Beaver Valley Road. , ... the Rainbow Orchard, and decided it would be a great new option for employees ...
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(Date:3/10/2020)... ... March 10, 2020 , ... ... biopharmaceutical engineering firm, is pleased to announce the addition of Carson Dickey ... device qualification and validation in the biopharmaceutical cold chain. He provides design ...
(Date:3/4/2020)... ... 04, 2020 , ... This month, Cognosante will make its annual appearance at ... both expanded and emerging offerings that align with the HIMSS annual theme, “Be the ... comprehensive, timely, and engaging. From Interoperability and HIE to Cloud ...
(Date:3/2/2020)... Md. (PRWEB) , ... March 02, 2020 , ... McBee, ... Patent Firms 2019 list in the field of Biotechnology and Organics. , According to ... on a total of 259 patents issued in technology center 1600 during 2019. Technology ...
(Date:2/21/2020)... ... , ... In a free session on Tuesday, March 10, 2020 ... Dilworth, BS, MS, Vice President Rare, Orphan and Pediatric Diseases, and Rachael Young, Associate ... support patients, sites and sponsors. , When planning a rare disease clinical trial, drug ...
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