Navigation Links
Reinventing the wheel -- naturally
Date:6/14/2010

Humans did not invent the wheel. Nature did.

While the evolution from the Neolithic solid stone wheel with a single hole for an axle to the sleek wheels of today's racing bikes can be seen as the result of human ingenuity, it also represents how animals, including humans, have come to move more efficiently and quicker over millions of years on Earth, according to a Duke University engineer.

Adrian Bejan, professor of mechanical engineering at Duke's Pratt School of Engineering, argues that just as the design of wheels became lighter with fewer spokes over time, and better at distributing the stresses of hitting the ground, animals have evolved as well to move better on Earth. In essence, over millions of years, animals such as humans developed the fewest "spokes," or legs, as the most efficient method for carrying an increasing body weight and height more easily.

"This prediction of how wheels should emerge in time is confirmed by the evolution of wheel technology," Bejan said. "For example, during the development of the carriage, solid disks were slowly replaced by wheels with tens of spokes."

The advantage of spokes is that they distribute stresses uniformly while being lighter and stronger than a solid wheel. "In contrast with the spoke, the solid wheel of antiquity was stressed unevenly, with a high concentration of stresses near the contact with the ground, and zero stresses on the upper side," Bejan said. "The wheel was large and heavy, and most of its volume did not support the load that the vehicle posed on the axle.

"If you view animal movement as a 'rolling' body, two legs, swinging back and forth, perform the same function of an entire wheel-rim assembly," Bejan said. "They also do it most efficiently like one wheel with two spokes with the stresses flowing unobstructed and uniformly through each spoke. The animal body is both wheel and vehicle for horizontal movement."

Bejan's analysi
'/>"/>

Contact: Richard Merritt
richard.merritt@duke.edu
919-660-8414
Duke University
Source:Eurekalert  

Page: 1 2 3

Related biology news :

1. Reinventing technology assessment for the 21st century
2. Saving energy and the environment with Flywheels
3. Clinical trial shows quadriplegics can operate powered wheelchair with tongue drive system
4. Medicine wheel model for nutrition shows promise for control of type 2 diabetes
5. Naturally-occurring apple compounds reduce risk of pancreatic cancer
6. Self-moisturizing contact lenses, naturally
7. Rabbits on the back foot -- but naturally theyre fighting back
8. Study shows pine bark naturally relieves symptoms of acute hemorrhoids
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
Related Image:
Reinventing the wheel -- naturally
(Date:4/13/2015)... YORK , April 13, 2015 ... by TechSci Research, "Global Biometrics Market Forecast & Opportunities, ... register a CAGR of around 14% till 2020. ... governments for large scale implementation and review of ... and launch of new products with greater efficiency, ...
(Date:4/6/2015)... OXFORD, Conn. , Apr. 6, 2015 /PRNewswire/ ... the "Company"), a biometric authentication company focused on ... it has filed provisional patent 62/143028 for ... CLOSE-PROXIMITY COMMUNICATIONS AND ENERGY TRANSFER  NXT-ID introduces ... wireless payments. This patent surrounds the use of ...
(Date:4/1/2015)... , Apr. 1, 2015  NXT-ID, Inc. (NASDAQ: ... company focused on the growing mobile commerce market, announces ... smart wallets is underway to early access pre-order customers. ... includes usage at retail outlets including Walmart, Target, AT&T, ... report Wocket was accepted at all outlets and very ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):Global Biometrics Market to Cross US$ 21 Billion by 2020: TechSci Research 2NXT-ID Patents Miniature, Low Power Wireless Magnetic Stripe 2NXT-ID Patents Miniature, Low Power Wireless Magnetic Stripe 3NXT-ID Patents Miniature, Low Power Wireless Magnetic Stripe 4NXT-ID Reports Second Shipment of Wocket Smart Wallets Underway to Early Access Pre-order Customers and Provides User Feedback 2NXT-ID Reports Second Shipment of Wocket Smart Wallets Underway to Early Access Pre-order Customers and Provides User Feedback 3NXT-ID Reports Second Shipment of Wocket Smart Wallets Underway to Early Access Pre-order Customers and Provides User Feedback 4
... (Santa Barbara, Calif.) The fossil remains of some ... a few centimeters in length and date to about 520 ... time, according to scientists. Their research indicates that these animals ... student in the Department of Earth Science at UC Santa ...
... a cancer drug will help an individual patient: only around ... patient. Researchers at the Heinz Nixdorf Chair for Medical Electronics ... test process for cancer drugs. With the help of microchips, ... cells will react to a given drug. This chip could ...
... A team of Spanish and Portuguese researchers has carried ... only by males) of the aboriginal population of the ... to which they have survived in the current population. ... paternal lineages which, unlike maternal lineages, have declined to ...
Cached Biology News:Geologist analyzes earliest shell-covered fossil animals 2Sensor biochips could aid in cancer diagnosis and treatment 2Sensor biochips could aid in cancer diagnosis and treatment 3The first men and women from the Canary Islands were Berbers 2The first men and women from the Canary Islands were Berbers 3
(Date:4/27/2015)... Balaton, MN (PRWEB) April 27, 2015 ... into an agreement with Texas A&M University for the ... referred to as super-intensive raceway systems. The license agreement ... Dr. Addison Lawrence, extends to countries such as China, ... United Kingdom. , “We have had inquires from ...
(Date:4/27/2015)... Elsevier , a world-leading provider ... Qatar University Research Office   have announced the winners of ... awards ceremony, held last week at Qatar ... more than 40 guests representing Qatar,s ... Sheikha Abdulla Al-Misnad , President of Qatar ...
(Date:4/24/2015)... SD and Tempe, AZ (PRWEB) April 24, 2015 ... Technology and Arizona State University (ASU) have entered into ... joint projects. , A memorandum of agreement signed by ... long distance learning, student success and other services particularly, ... resources. , “We have complementary strengths and a ...
(Date:4/24/2015)... , April 24, 2015 /PRNewswire/ - BioAmber Inc. (NYSE: ... MaterialScience as the supplier of bio-succinic acid used ... polyurethanes for textile applications that Bayer MaterialScience has ... launched IMPRANIL ® eco, a series of ... reaches as high as 65%.  IMPRANIL ® ...
Breaking Biology Technology:tru Shrimp™ Systems Acquires Global Patent for Tidal Basin™ Shrimp Production 2Elsevier Announces the Winners of Qatar University Scientists 2015 Scopus Awards 2Elsevier Announces the Winners of Qatar University Scientists 2015 Scopus Awards 3Elsevier Announces the Winners of Qatar University Scientists 2015 Scopus Awards 4Elsevier Announces the Winners of Qatar University Scientists 2015 Scopus Awards 5South Dakota Mines, Arizona State University Pave Way for Cooperative Research 2Bayer MaterialScience Names BioAmber As Its Supplier For New Product Line - Bio-succinic acid forms backbone of innovative new bio-based polyurethanes for textiles 2Bayer MaterialScience Names BioAmber As Its Supplier For New Product Line - Bio-succinic acid forms backbone of innovative new bio-based polyurethanes for textiles 3Bayer MaterialScience Names BioAmber As Its Supplier For New Product Line - Bio-succinic acid forms backbone of innovative new bio-based polyurethanes for textiles 4
... Jan. 28 Tissue Genesis, Inc., an emerging ... American Medical Systems Holdings, Inc. (Nasdaq: AMMD ) announced ... development of adipose (fat)–derived regenerative cells for use in treating ... million over the life of the agreement to obtain ...
... MADRID , Jan. 28 The 2009 BBVA ... to physicist and chemist Richard N. Zare , of ... the University of Maryland , for their independent, fundamental contributions ... of nature,s building blocks and the underlying interactions between them by ...
... , ... , , ... today,that Scopus Custom Data, the underlying source of Scopus.com, the world,s,largest abstract ... citation linkage analysis between scientific,articles and patents. JST, as the funding agency ...
Cached Biology Technology:American Medical Systems and Tissue Genesis Sign $1.1 Million Collaboration Deal 2American Medical Systems and Tissue Genesis Sign $1.1 Million Collaboration Deal 3American Medical Systems and Tissue Genesis Sign $1.1 Million Collaboration Deal 4Zare and Fisher Win the BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Award in Basic Sciences for Rendering Molecules Visible and Analyzing Their Collective Behavior 2Zare and Fisher Win the BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Award in Basic Sciences for Rendering Molecules Visible and Analyzing Their Collective Behavior 3Zare and Fisher Win the BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Award in Basic Sciences for Rendering Molecules Visible and Analyzing Their Collective Behavior 4Zare and Fisher Win the BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Award in Basic Sciences for Rendering Molecules Visible and Analyzing Their Collective Behavior 5Zare and Fisher Win the BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Award in Basic Sciences for Rendering Molecules Visible and Analyzing Their Collective Behavior 6Zare and Fisher Win the BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Award in Basic Sciences for Rendering Molecules Visible and Analyzing Their Collective Behavior 7Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) Selects Scopus Custom Data for Citation Linkage Analysis Between Scientific Articles and Patents 2Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) Selects Scopus Custom Data for Citation Linkage Analysis Between Scientific Articles and Patents 3Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) Selects Scopus Custom Data for Citation Linkage Analysis Between Scientific Articles and Patents 4Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) Selects Scopus Custom Data for Citation Linkage Analysis Between Scientific Articles and Patents 5Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) Selects Scopus Custom Data for Citation Linkage Analysis Between Scientific Articles and Patents 6
Request Info...
... service provides the premium quality siRNAs you ... siRNAs can be readily ordered online by ... or by providing the sense and antisense ... Validated and Silencer Pre-designed siRNAs, which are ...
Ready for formulation or direct injection into animals Provided in convenient 100, 250, 1000 and 10,000 nmol sizes HPLC purified, salt free, sterile filtered, and endotoxin tested ...
GEL FILTRATION CAL KIT HMW, 1 EA. *Category: Gel Filtration Gels....
Biology Products: