"Our definition of invasive is 'a population exhibiting a net negative impact or harm to the target ecosystem,' for example," Quinn said. "We want to establish guidelines that will be simple for regulators and informed by the ecological literature and our own knowledge. We also need to recognize that some native plants can become weedy or invasive. It's complicated and requires some understanding of the biology of these plants."
Quinn said that ideally the definitions and suggested regulations could become part of a revised Renewable Fuels Standard administered by EPA, which would require Congress to make the changes. The proposed regulations could also be adopted at the state level.
"Some of the biofeedstocks currently being examined by the EPA for approval, like pennycress, have a high risk for invasion," Quinn said. "Others have vague names such as jatropha with no species name, which is problematic. For example, there are three main Miscanthus species but only sterile hybrid Miscanthus giganteus types are considered low risk. However, the EPA has approved "Miscanthus" as a feedstock without specifying a species or genotype" Quinn said. "That's fine for the low-risk sterile types but could mean higher-risk fertile types could be approved without additional oversight."
According to Quinn, the white list, which includes 49 low-risk feedstock plants, will serve to clear up the confusion about plant names. The list was developed using an existing weed risk assessment protocol, which includes 49 questions that must be asked about a particular species based on its biology, ecology, and its history of being invasive in other parts of the world.
"Those questions are difficult to answer for new taxa, including plants that haven't been around long or have just recently been develop
|Contact: Debra Levey Larson|
University of Illinois College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences