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Preparing for a thaw: How Arctic microbes respond to a warming world
Date:11/6/2011

he currently uncultivated and unstudied microbial species residing in permafrost cycle organic carbon and release greenhouse gases during thaw," Jansson said. "This will provide valuable information that could lead to improved carbon cycle models and eventual mitigation strategies."

According to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, in 2009 fossil fuel combustion accounted for 5.2 billion metric tons of the nation's carbon dioxide emissions, a tiny fraction (about 3/10 of 1 percent) of the carbon dioxide trapped in the Arctic permafrost. Understanding the microbial processes in the frozen soils and the impacts of microbial activity on carbon dioxide processes, has been a project of study co-author and USGS researcher Mark Waldrop, whose 2010 Community Sequencing Program project, another with the DOE JGI (in collaboration with Jansson), focuses on comparing the short-term microbial response of the thawing permafrost to the longer-term processes.

Waldrop cored meter-deep permafrost samples from a peaty black spruce forest along Hess Creek, Alaska. Each sample was then divided to distinguish between the seasonally thawed "active" layer, which comprised the top third of the core, and the permanently frozen "permafrost" horizon underneath. The samples were incubated during thaw at 5C and then sent to the Jansson lab for DNA extraction and analyses At the DOE JGI, the team led by Director Eddy Rubin and his postdoctoral fellow Rachel Mackelprang, (now at California State University-Northridge) sequenced microbial DNA from the samples. "These microbial communities are extremely diverse," said Mackelprang. "A single gram of soil may contain thousands of different bacterial species and billions of cells. Additionally, most of these microbes cannot be grown in the laboratory, making this an extremely difficult area to study." The data were then analyzed in collaboration with Jansson and her team at ESD, including Kristen DeAngelis, Maude David, and Krys
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Contact: David Gilbert
degilbert@lbl.gov
DOE/Joint Genome Institute
Source:Eurekalert

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