Navigation Links
Plant organ development breakthrough

Stanford, CA Plants grow upward from a tip of undifferentiated tissue called the shoot apical meristem. As the tip extends, stem cells at the center of the meristem divide and increase in numbers. But the cells on the periphery differentiate to form plant organs, such as leaves and flowers. In between these two layers, a group of boundary cells go into a quiescent state and form a barrier that not only separates stem cells from differentiating cells, but eventually forms the borders that separate the plant's organs.

Because each plant's form and shape is determined by organ formation and organ boundary creation, elucidating the underlying mechanisms that govern these functions could help scientists design the architecture of crop plants to better capture light and ultimately produce more crop yield with less input. New research from two teams led by Carnegie's Zhiyong Wang and Kathryn Barton focuses on the role of the crucial plant hormone brassinosteroid in the creation of plant-shoot architecture. Their work is published by Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences during the week of December 3.

Like all organisms, plant growth and development is regulated by internally produced chemical signals, including hormones like brassinosteroid, which is found throughout the plant kingdom. The brassinosteroid signaling pathway is involved in regulating more than 1,000 plant genes. Mutant plants that are deficient in brassinosteroid that are grown in the dark show features of plants grown in the light. They also have defects at many phases of the plant life cycle, including reduced seed germination, dwarfism, and sterility.

The new study lead by Wang and Barton uncovered yet another role of brassinosteroid: the formation of boundaries between organs. Plants made hypersensitive to brassinosteroid displayed fused organs.

The team included lead author's Carnegie's Joshua Gendron and Jiang-Shu Liu, as well as Min Fan, Mingyi Bai, and Stephan Wenkel, from Carnegie, and Patricia Springer from the University of California Riverside.

Their investigations showed that activation of the brassinosteroid pathway represses a group of genes called the cup-shaped cotyledon, or CUC family, which is responsible for organ boundary formation. Using sophisticated techniques the team demonstrated that the protein in the brassinosteroid pathway that is responsible for binding to DNA and, in this case, for inhibiting CUC genes, is present at high levels in the meristem's undifferentiated stem cells and developing organ primordia, but very low in the boundary cells, suggesting that different levels of brassinosteroid activity contribute to the opposite growth behavior of these three types of cells.

"This work links the plant steroids to growth and development, organ boundary development, providing a link between the physiology of the plant and its architectural design," Wang and Barton said.


Contact: Zhiyong Wang
Carnegie Institution

Related biology news :

1. The future of plant science - a technology perspective
2. The future of plant science a technology perspective
3. Bone marrow transplant arrests symptoms in model of Rett syndrome
4. American Society of Plant Biologists honors early career women scientists
5. Not just for the birds: Man-made noise has ripple effects on plants, too
6. Plant DNA speaks English, identifies new species
7. Human noise has ripple effects on plants
8. New databases harvest a rich bounty of information on crop plant metabolism
9. Plant research reveals new role for gene silencing protein
10. Plants mimic scent of pollinating beetles
11. Stomata development in plants unraveled -- a valuable discovery for environmental research
Post Your Comments:
(Date:11/16/2015)... , Nov 16, 2015  Synaptics Inc. ... human interface solutions, today announced expansion of its ... ™ touch controller and display driver integration ... of smartphones. These new TDDI products add to ... (HD resolution), TD4302 (WQHD resolution), and TD4322 (FHD ...
(Date:11/12/2015)... , Nov. 11, 2015   Growing need ... analytical tools has been paving the way for ... determination of discrete analytes in clinical, agricultural, environmental, ... being predominantly used in medical applications, however, their ... sectors due to continuous emphasis on improving product ...
(Date:11/10/2015)... About signature verification Signature ... identify and verify the identity of an individual ... secure and accurate method of authentication and is ... because each individual,s signature is highly unique. Signature ... signature of an individual is compared and matched ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:11/25/2015)... HOLLISTON, Mass. , Nov. 25, 2015 ... HART ), a biotechnology company developing bioengineered organ implants ... McGorry will present at the LD Micro "Main ... 2:30 p.m. PT. The presentation will be webcast live ... Management will also be available at the conference for ...
(Date:11/25/2015)... November 25, 2015 The ... is a professional and in-depth study on the ...      (Logo: ) , ... industry including definitions, classifications, applications and industry chain ... the international markets including development trends, competitive landscape ...
(Date:11/24/2015)... -- Halozyme Therapeutics, Inc. (NASDAQ: HALO ) will be presenting ... on Wednesday, December 2 at 9:30 a.m. ET/6:30 a.m. ... will provide a corporate overview. th Annual Oppenheimer ... p.m. ET/10:00 a.m. PT . Jim Mazzola , vice ... overview. --> th Annual Oppenheimer Healthcare Conference in ...
(Date:11/24/2015)... Global, Inc., a worldwide provider of clinical research services headquartered in ... company has set a new quarterly earnings record in Q3 of ... for Q3 of 2014 to Q3 of 2015.   ... with the establishment of an Asia-Pacific office ... Kingdom and Mexico , with the ...
Breaking Biology Technology: