Navigation Links
Plant hormone regulates nectar production
Date:3/29/2010

Rapeseed is one of the ten most important agricultural crops worldwide. In spring, the rapeseed fields with their bright yellow flowers are widely visible: this year winter rapeseed is being cultivated on 1.46 million hectares in Germany; at least 2.2 million tons of rapeseed oil can be expected. Beekeepers set up their beehives in the vicinity of rapeseed fields, so that the worker bees can gather nectar This ensures that the rapeseed flowers are pollinated and a high crop yield will be obtained. During her studies, a scientist from the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology has discovered that the plant hormone jasmonic acid known as a signalling molecule after herbivory not only regulates flower development in the bud stage, but also triggers nectar production.

Jasmonic acid and related molecules are constituents of molecular signal transduction chains in plant tissues. These compounds generally referred to as jasmonates are synthesized when caterpillars feed on plants; they are signaling substances and belong to the group of plant hormones. By producing jasmonates the plant regulates its defense against herbivores e.g. by stimulating the synthesis of toxins. Moreover, previous studies have shown that jasmonates regulate the production of "extrafloral nectar". This particular nectar, which is produced by special glands called "extrafloral nectaries", has nothing to do with pollination, but attracts ants to the herbivore-attacked plants as defenders against their pests. The sugars in the nectar reward the ants for defending the plant. The same principle applies to floral nectar: nectar production in the flowers attracts and rewards pollinators which in turn contribute substantially to the seed yield. However, up to now, it has not been clear how nectar production is regulated in the flowers.

Different effects in flowers and leaves

Radhika Venkatesan, PhD student at the International Max Planck Research School in Jena, studied Brassica napus, a widespread and agriculturally important plant species. She found that when its flower tissues produced jasmonates during an early developmental stage, nectar production was immediately activated, regardless of whether the plant had been attacked by herbivores or not. "When we put caterpillars on the rapeseed leaves to elicit jasmonic acid production, the nectar secretion of the flowers was not affected," the researcher says. Spraying jasmonic acid on the green leaves also did not have an impact on the production of nectar in the flowers. However, when the scientist sprayed jasmonic acid directly on the flowers, nectar production increased dramatically. This clearly indicates that jasmonic acid has different functions in the different plant tissues: whereas the hormone activates defense mechanisms against herbivores in the leaves and the shoot of the plant, it regulates nectar production in the flower tissue.

The correlation between the production of jasmonic acid and nectar accumulation was demonstrated in experiments with an inhibitor: if the flowers had been treated with an inhibitor of jasmonic acid synthesis, the so-called phenidone, nectar production failed. If the substance was sprayed on young, still closed flower buds, however, their opening was inhibited, which confirms the importance of jasmonic acid also during the development of the flowers.

"The fact that jasmonic acid regulates so many functions, such as plant defense and pollination, is extremely interesting and raises new questions, especially concerning the evolution of these control mechanisms," says Martin Heil, the leader of the study. Wilhelm Boland, director at the Max Planck Institute in Jena, emphasizes: "The more we know about the hormonal effects on flower development and nectar production in agricultural crops like rapeseed, the better we can use this knowledge to ensure high yields." Even beekeepers could benefit from increased nectar production. [JWK, AO]


'/>"/>

Contact: Professor Martin Heil
mheil@ira.cinvestav.mx
52-462-623-9657
Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology
Source:Eurekalert  

Related biology news :

1. Circadian clock controls plant growth hormone
2. Layered approach may yield stronger, more successful bone implants
3. Clearance of hepatitis C viral infection after liver transplantation
4. Device helps patients survive, regain function til transplant
5. How the plant immune system can drive the formation of new species
6. The American Society of Plant Biologists announces 2007 awards
7. UCR plant cell biologist to study how plant stem cells maintain and change their identity
8. A study proposes a new universal rule to explain the equilibrium of plant populations
9. A study proposes a new universal rule to explain the equilibrium of plant populations
10. Study shows vitamin C is essential for plant growth
11. Clever plants chat over their own network
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
Related Image:
Plant hormone regulates nectar production
(Date:12/2/2016)... , Dec. 1, 2016   SoftServe , ... BioLock , an electrocardiogram (ECG) biosensor analysis ... a key IoT asset. The smart system ensures ... vehicle,s steering wheel and mobile devices to easily ... As vehicle technology advances, so too ...
(Date:11/29/2016)... BioDirection, a privately held medical device company ... detection of concussion and other traumatic brain injury (TBI), ... meeting with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) ... During the meeting company representatives reviewed plans for clinical ... commencement of a planned pilot trial. ...
(Date:11/28/2016)... 28, 2016 "The biometric ... 16.79%" The biometric system market is in the ... the near future. The biometric system market is expected ... at a CAGR of 16.79% between 2016 and 2022. ... biometric technology in smartphones, rising use of biometric technology ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:11/30/2016)... BEIJING , Nov. 30, 2016 Novogene ... services and solutions with cutting edge next-generation sequencing (NGS) ... a USD $75 Million [515 Million RMB] B round ... Capital Management ( Shenzhen ) Co., Ltd. ... Innovation") and Shanghai Sigma Square Investment Center LP ("Sigma ...
(Date:11/30/2016)... , November 30, 2016 Part of ... ... Aptuit, LLC today announced that it had ... additional 150,000 novel compounds have increased the Screening Collection to ... the hit discovery capabilities of the company. This expansion, complemented ...
(Date:11/30/2016)... ... November 30, 2016 , ... SSCI, the established leader ... the implications of the latest FDA guidance on pharmaceutical cocrystals as drug substance ... Cambridge, MA. , The event follows the successful November 15th event that ...
(Date:11/30/2016)... Park, NC (PRWEB) , ... November 30, 2016 ... ... company engaged in the development of a new orally administered treatment for Alzheimer’s ... and neuroimaging results of a Phase 2a clinical trial of T3D-959 in mild ...
Breaking Biology Technology: