Navigation Links
Pavlov's rats? Rodents trained to link rewards to visual cues
Date:1/24/2013

p>Knowing that the basal forebrain is implicated in learning, the researchers wanted to know if their observations could be explained by nerves from the basal forebrain delivering ACh to the vision-processing center. To remove those nerve cells from the equation, they paired a neurotoxin with a "homing device" that targets only ACh-releasing neurons coming from the basal forebrain. They then repeated their experiments in trained rats that received the neurotoxin and in those that didn't, and found that the nerve cell signals continued to relay the old time intervals, suggesting that ACh and the basal forebrain weren't needed to express previously learned time information.

The researchers next used those same rats to ask if ACh is necessary for nerve cells to learn new time delays. To do that, they switched the visual cues so that a flash in the left eye meant a long delay and one in the right eye meant a short one. Vision-processing nerve cells in the rats in which ACh delivery was left intact adapted their signals to the new associations; but those in the rats that no longer received ACh continued to relay the old associations, suggesting that ACh is necessary to make new associations but not to express old ones.

Hussain Shuler explains, "When a reward is received, ACh is sent throughout the brain and reinforces only those nerve cell connections that were recently active. The process of conditioning continues to strengthen these nerve connections, giving rise to a timed expectation of reward in the brain."

According to Hussain Shuler, studies have shown that Alzheimer's patients have low levels of ACh and have trouble forming new memories. Though medication may elevate ACh, alleviation of symptoms is limited. "Our research explains that limitation," he says. "Therapeutically, we predict that the problem isn't just low levels of ACh the timing of ACh delivery is key."

Other authors of the report include Emma Roach of the Johns
'/>"/>

Contact: Vanessa McMains
vmcmain1@jhmi.edu
410-502-9410
Johns Hopkins Medicine
Source:Eurekalert  

Page: 1 2 3 4

Related biology news :

1. RATS research may teach rodents to detect explosives
2. New species of ancient rodents hint at what could be worlds oldest grasslands
3. Thieving rodents: Did they save tropical trees?
4. Have thieving rodents saved tropical trees?
5. A trained palate: Understanding complexities of taste, smell could lead to improved diet
6. Risks and rewards of quantifying natures ecosystem services
7. Primates brains make visual maps using triangular grids
8. Military vision research symposium focuses on visual fallout from war
9. Stealthy microscopy method visualizes E. coli sub-cellular structure in 3-D
10. 2 NASA visualizations selected for computers graphics showcase
11. UC Santa Barbara researchers discover genetic link between visual pathways of hydras and humans
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
Related Image:
Pavlov's rats? Rodents trained to link rewards to visual cues
(Date:7/24/2014)... smog-free Los Angeles, where electric cars ply silent freeways, ... heat from beneath the earth, from howling winds and ... study finds that it is technically and economically feasible ... by clean, renewable energy. Published in Energy , ... and reliable energy supply in California that could create ...
(Date:7/24/2014)... at Albert Einstein College of Medicine of ... J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson,s Research to translate a ... This drug discovery project will test chemical compounds on ... a drug that acts on an underlying cause of ... help many people manage their symptoms, we are eager ...
(Date:7/24/2014)... in the United States, wildland managers often utilize the ... trees (ladder fuels). These cuttings and other post-logging ... danger in order to dispose of the material. To ... often cover all or part of the debris pile ... plastic, in order to keep water out. A recent ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):Stanford study shows how to power California with wind, water and sun 2Stanford study shows how to power California with wind, water and sun 3Stanford study shows how to power California with wind, water and sun 4Albert Einstein College of Medicine receives grant from the Michael J. Fox Foundation to fund drug discovery project targeting Parkinson's 2Albert Einstein College of Medicine receives grant from the Michael J. Fox Foundation to fund drug discovery project targeting Parkinson's 3Study gives new perspective on agricultural plastic, debris burning, and air quality 2
... too much growth in patients has now also been ... can lead to very different conditions, according to research ... IMAGe* syndrome is a rare developmental disorder which ... body and organ size. Without treatment, the disorder can ...
... climate change because they don,t understand the science behind ... more proficient in technical reasoning, would public consensus match ... the journal Nature Climate Change suggests that ... members of the public become more science literate and ...
... see how a common house sparrow and a Tyrannosaurus Rex might ... weighs less than an ounce, and the other is a dinosaur ... scales at more than eight tons. For all their ... than many believed. A new study, led by Harvard scientists, has ...
Cached Biology News:Variations of a single gene can lead to too much or too little growth, study shows 2Yale study concludes public apathy over climate change unrelated to science literacy 2Timing is everything 2Timing is everything 3Timing is everything 4
(Date:7/25/2014)... the University of Leicester has furthered our understanding ... to create new materials using nanosized ,building blocks,. ... the prestigious academic journal Physical Review Letters ... in rich detail the structure and internal atomic ... molecule and a single helium atom. , The ...
(Date:7/25/2014)... Lawrence Livermore scientists Charles Westbrook and William ... " The World's Most Influential Scientific Minds ." , ... who were identified by analyzing citation data over the ... highest-impact work (2002-2012 and 2012-2013). The two were selected ... . , "This recognition is a great honor for ...
(Date:7/24/2014)... NY - July 24, 2014 -- Keryx Biopharmaceuticals, Inc. ... the long-term, randomized, active control Phase 3 study of ... phosphate binder, for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in patients ... study (PhosphatE binding and iRon delivery with FErric CiTrate ... Journal of the American Society of Nephrology ( ...
(Date:7/24/2014)... 2014  ECC West Africa, LLC (ECC) signed a ... University College Hospital (UCH) Ibadan Board of Management for ... design, construct, and operate and maintain a new, state-of-the-art ... Under the first of the 4-phase project, ECC will ... applications. UCH Ibadan intends to finance and develop the ...
Breaking Biology Technology:Breakthrough laser experiment reveals liquid-like motion of atoms in an ultra-cold cluster 2Breakthrough laser experiment reveals liquid-like motion of atoms in an ultra-cold cluster 3Scientists Burst onto Influential List for Combustion Research 2Scientists Burst onto Influential List for Combustion Research 3Scientists Burst onto Influential List for Combustion Research 4Zerenex (ferric citrate) long-term Phase 3 study results published in JASN 2Zerenex (ferric citrate) long-term Phase 3 study results published in JASN 3Zerenex (ferric citrate) long-term Phase 3 study results published in JASN 4ECC Signs a Contract for the Finance, Design, and Construction of a Premier Cancer Institute in Ibadan, Nigeria 2
... to also Raise $7.5 Million in Non-Dilutive Financing from, ... 17 /PRNewswire-FirstCall/ - Vasogen Inc. (NASDAQ: VSGN ; TSX:VAS) ... a definitive agreement, subject to shareholder and regulatory approvals, whereby ... and merger to continue as a publicly-traded entity to be ...
... , SHANGHAI, Aug. 17 /PRNewswire-Asia-FirstCall/ -- ... leading Chinese firm,specializing in the manufacture, research, development, marketing and,distribution ... quarter of its 2010 fiscal year, ended June 30, 2009. ... -- Net sales increased 35.5% year-over-year to $15.4 ...
... a "spaser," is the first of its kind to ... possible future technologies based on "nanophotonic" circuitry, said Vladimir ... and Computer Engineering at Purdue University. Such circuits ... be made small enough to integrate them into electronic ...
Cached Biology Technology:Vasogen and IntelliPharmaCeutics to Combine to Create Publicly-traded Specialty Pharmaceutical Company 2Vasogen and IntelliPharmaCeutics to Combine to Create Publicly-traded Specialty Pharmaceutical Company 3Vasogen and IntelliPharmaCeutics to Combine to Create Publicly-traded Specialty Pharmaceutical Company 4Vasogen and IntelliPharmaCeutics to Combine to Create Publicly-traded Specialty Pharmaceutical Company 5Vasogen and IntelliPharmaCeutics to Combine to Create Publicly-traded Specialty Pharmaceutical Company 6Vasogen and IntelliPharmaCeutics to Combine to Create Publicly-traded Specialty Pharmaceutical Company 7Vasogen and IntelliPharmaCeutics to Combine to Create Publicly-traded Specialty Pharmaceutical Company 8Vasogen and IntelliPharmaCeutics to Combine to Create Publicly-traded Specialty Pharmaceutical Company 9China-Biotics, Inc. Reports First Quarter Fiscal 2010 Financial Results 2China-Biotics, Inc. Reports First Quarter Fiscal 2010 Financial Results 3China-Biotics, Inc. Reports First Quarter Fiscal 2010 Financial Results 4China-Biotics, Inc. Reports First Quarter Fiscal 2010 Financial Results 5China-Biotics, Inc. Reports First Quarter Fiscal 2010 Financial Results 6China-Biotics, Inc. Reports First Quarter Fiscal 2010 Financial Results 7China-Biotics, Inc. Reports First Quarter Fiscal 2010 Financial Results 8China-Biotics, Inc. Reports First Quarter Fiscal 2010 Financial Results 9China-Biotics, Inc. Reports First Quarter Fiscal 2010 Financial Results 10China-Biotics, Inc. Reports First Quarter Fiscal 2010 Financial Results 11New nanolaser key to future optical computers and technologies 2New nanolaser key to future optical computers and technologies 3