Navigation Links
Patterns of chromosome abnormality: The key to cancer?
Date:1/23/2012

A healthy genome is characterized by 23 pairs of chromosomes, and even a small change in this structure such as an extra copy of a single chromosome can lead to severe physical impairment. So it's no surprise that when it comes to cancer, chromosomal structure is frequently a contributing factor, says Prof. Ron Shamir of the Blavatnik School of Computer Science at Tel Aviv University.

Now Prof. Shamir and his former doctoral students Michal Ozery-Flato and Chaim Linhart, along with fellow researchers Prof. Shai Izraeli and Dr. Luba Trakhtenbrot from the Sheba Medical Center, have combined techniques from computer science and statistics to discover that many chromosomal pairs are lost or gained together across various cancer types. Moreover, the researchers discovered a new commonality of chromosomal aberrations among embryonic cancer types, such as kidney, skeleton, and liver cancers.

These findings, recently published in Genome Biology, could reveal more about the nature of cancer. As cancer develops, the genome becomes increasingly mutated and identifying the pattern of mutation can help us to understand the nature and the progression of many different kinds of cancer, says Prof. Shamir.

Looking at the big picture

As cancer progresses, the structure of chromosomes is rearranged, individual chromosomes are duplicated or lost, and the genome becomes abnormal. Some forms of cancer can even be diagnosed by identifying individual chromosomal aberrations, notes Prof. Shamir, pointing to the example of a specific type of leukemia that is caused by small piece of chromosome 9 being moved to chromosome 22.

When analyzing many different kinds of cancer, however, the researchers discovered that chromosomal aberrations among different cancers happen together in a noticeable and significant way. The researchers studied a collection of more than fifty thousand cancer karyotypes representations of chromosomal layouts in a single cell and charted them according to commonalities. The researchers were not only able to confirm different chromosomal aberrations that appeared in specific cancer types, but also for the first time identified a broader effect of pairs of chromosomes being lost or gained together across different cancer types.

It was also the first time that researchers saw a connection among solid kidney, skeleton, and liver cancers. While it was known that these cancers all develop in the embryo, they were previously analyzed independently. The TAU researchers have now confirmed that they share chromosomal characteristics and aberrations, much like various forms of leukemia or lymphomas.

Aberrations a driving force for cancer

Under normal circumstances, even a small change to a person's chromosomal structure can be devastating. For example, Down's syndrome is caused by a single extra copy of Chromosome 21. "But in cancer, there are many cases of extra or missing chromosomes. Yet cancer cells thrive more effectively than other cells," Prof. Shamir says.

Prof. Shamir hopes that future investigation into these chromosomal aberrations will give researchers more clues into why something that is so detrimental to our healthy development is so beneficial to this disease. Cancer is the result of sequences of events, he says, each causing the genome to become more mutated, mixed, and duplicated. Tracking these changes could aid our understanding of the driving forces of cancer's progress.


'/>"/>

Contact: George Hunka
ghunka@aftau.org
212-742-9070
American Friends of Tel Aviv University
Source:Eurekalert  

Related biology news :

1. Patterns of antibiotic-resistant bacteria found in Galapagos reptiles
2. Tool enables scientists to uncover patterns in vast data sets
3. Researchers link patterns seen in spider silk, melodies
4. Researcher finds key to ancient weather patterns in Floridas caves
5. Controlled disorder -- scientists find way to form random molecular patterns
6. Predators drive the evolution of poison dart frogs skin patterns
7. Contrasting patterns of malaria drug resistance found between humans and mosquitoes
8. Patterns of new DNA letter in brain suggest distinct function
9. West Nile virus transmission linked with land-use patterns and super-spreaders
10. Flight patterns reveal how mosquitoes find hosts to transmit deadly diseases
11. Scientists probe Indian Ocean for clues to worldwide weather patterns
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
Related Image:
Patterns of chromosome abnormality: The key to cancer?
(Date:1/27/2016)... WEST CHESTER, Ohio , Jan. 27, 2016 /PRNewswire/ ... services supplier based in West Chester, Ohio ... and their award winning service staff, based in ... Track,s technical capacity and ability to provide modifications, installations ... John Dovalina , CEO of PLUS, commented, "PLUS ...
(Date:1/21/2016)... India , January 21, 2016 ... According to a new market research report "Emotion Detection ... and Others), Software Tools (Facial Expression, Voice Recognition ... Regions - Global forecast to 2020", published by ... is expected to reach USD 22.65 Billion by ...
(Date:1/15/2016)... 2016 Recent publicized breaches in cyber security ... ways to ensure data security and user authentication in ... Android that ties a user,s mobile number ... a hardware authorization token. Customer service agents who employ ... their KodeKey enabled device to verify their identity.  Companies ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:2/4/2016)... Oakland, California (PRWEB) , ... February 04, 2016 ... ... Artificial Intelligence (AI) and leading supplier of Semantic Graph Database technology has been ... Graph Database Products ” by Corporate America Magazine. , “At Corporate America, it’s ...
(Date:2/3/2016)... SAN DIEGO , Feb. 3, 2016 /PRNewswire/ ... medicine company with the first pluripotent stem cell-derived ... 1 diabetes in clinical-stage development, today announced that ... Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson & Johnson, have ... BetaLogics group into ViaCyte.  The agreement provides ViaCyte ...
(Date:2/3/2016)... Denmark , Feb. 3, 2016 Ascendis ... biotechnology company that applies its innovative TransCon technology to ... present at an upcoming investor conference.Event:2016 Leerink Partners Global ... NY Date:  , Wednesday, February 10, 2016 Time:  ... www.ascendispharma.com . --> An audio webcast ...
(Date:2/3/2016)... Denver, Colorado (PRWEB) , ... February 03, 2016 ... ... to hospitals, has established a new office dedicated to the North American healthcare ... provide turnkey solutions to healthcare facilities. The company will provide new pneumatic ...
Breaking Biology Technology: