Navigation Links
Novel antioxidant makes old arteries seem young again, CU-Boulder study finds
Date:5/6/2014

An antioxidant that targets specific cell structuresmitochondriamay be able to reverse some of the negative effects of aging on arteries, reducing the risk of heart disease, according to a new study by the University of Colorado Boulder.

When the research team gave old micethe equivalent of 70- to 80-year-old humanswater containing an antioxidant known as MitoQ for four weeks, their arteries functioned as well as the arteries of mice with an equivalent human age of just 25 to 35 years.

The researchers believe that MitoQ affects the endothelium, a thin layer of cells that lines our blood vessels. One of the many functions of the endothelium is to help arteries dilate when necessary. As people age, the endothelium is less able to trigger dilation and this leads to a greater susceptibility to cardiovascular disease.

"One of the hallmarks of primary aging is endothelial dysfunction," said Rachel Gioscia-Ryan, a doctoral student in CU-Boulder's Department of Integrative Physiology and lead author of the new study. "MitoQ completely restored endothelial function in the old mice. They looked like young mice."

The study, published in the Journal of Physiology, was funded by the National Institute on Aging, one of the 27 institutes and centers of the National Institutes of Health and a leader in the scientific effort to understand the nature of aging.

To trigger blood vessel dilation, the endothelium makes nitric oxide. As we age, the nitric oxide meant to cause dilation is increasingly destroyed by reactive oxygen species such as superoxide, which are produced by many components of our body's own cells, including organelles called mitochondria.

In a double-whammy, superoxide also reacts directly with the enzyme that makes nitric oxide, reducing the amount of nitric oxide being produced to begin with. All of this means less blood vessel dilation.

Even in the young and healthy, mitochondria produce superoxide, which is necessary in low levels to maintain important cellular functions. Superoxide is kept in check by the body's own antioxidants, which combine with superoxide to make it less reactive and prevent oxidative damage to cells.

"You have this kind of balance, but with aging there is this shift," said Gioscia-Ryan, who works in Professor Douglas Seals' Integrative Physiology of Aging Laboratory at CU-Boulder. "There become way more reactive oxygen species than your antioxidant defenses can handle."

That phenomenon, known as oxidative stress, occurs when the cells of older adults begin to produce too much superoxide and other reactive oxygen species. Mitochondria are a major source of superoxide in aging cells. The increased superoxide not only interacts with nitric oxide and the endothelium, but can also attack the mitochondria themselves. The damaged mitochondria become increasingly dysfunctional, producing even more reactive oxygen species and creating an undesirable cycle.

Past studies have looked at whether taking antioxidant supplements long term could improve vascular function in patients with cardiovascular disease by restoring balance to the levels of superoxide, but they've largely shown that the strategy isn't effective.

This new study differs because it uses an antioxidant that specifically targets mitochondria. Biochemists manufactured MitoQ by adding a molecule to ubiquinone (also known as coenzyme Q10), a naturally occurring antioxidant. The additional molecule makes the ubiquinone become concentrated in mitochondria.

"The question is, 'Why aren't we all just taking a bunch of vitamin C?" Gioscia-Ryan said. "Scientists think that, taken orally, antioxidants like vitamin C aren't getting to the places where the reactive oxygen species are being made. MitoQ basically tracks right to the mitochondria."

The findings of the study indicate that the strategy of specifically targeting the mitochondria may be effective for improving the function of arteries as we age. In addition to improving endothelial function, the MitoQ treatment increased levels of nitric oxide, reduced oxidative stress and improved the health of the mitochondria in the arteries of old mice.


'/>"/>

Contact: Rachel Gioscia-Ryan
Rachel.Gioscia@colorado.edu
303-492-3106
University of Colorado at Boulder
Source:Eurekalert

Related biology news :

1. Researchers discover novel therapy for Crohns disease
2. New clinical trial explores novel noninvasive colon cancer screening test
3. Notre Dame researchers using novel method to combat malaria drug resistance
4. Unique adaptations to a symbiotic lifestyle reveal novel targets for aphid insecticides
5. Key proteins newly discovered form and function may provide novel cancer treatment target
6. Novel discovery by NUS scientists paves the way for more effective treatment of cancers
7. London researchers discover novel mechanism involved in key immune response
8. Mexican rock heroes trial novel green trading system
9. VTT and GE Healthcare developing novel biomarkers to predict Alzheimers disease
10. Cleveland Clinic researchers receive $5 million grant to discover novel pathways to heart disease
11. Novel nano-structures to realize hydrogens energy potential
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:8/15/2017)... --  ivWatch LLC , a medical device company focused on improving ... of its ISO 13485 Certification, the global standard for medical device ... (ISO®). ... Monitoring device for the early detection of IV infiltrations. ... "This is an important milestone for ivWatch, as it ...
(Date:5/23/2017)...  Hunova, the first robotic gym for the rehabilitation and functional motor ... Genoa, Italy . The first 30 robots will be ... USA . The technology was developed and patented at the ... spin-off Movendo Technology thanks to a 10 million euro investment from entrepreneur ... ...
(Date:4/19/2017)... 19, 2017 The global military ... is marked by the presence of several large global ... by five major players - 3M Cogent, NEC Corporation, ... for nearly 61% of the global military biometric market ... the global military biometrics market boast global presence, which ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:10/12/2017)... SARASOTA, FL (PRWEB) , ... ... ... Inc. (RPS®) today announces publication of a United States multicenter, prospective clinical ... single use, disposable, point-of-care diagnostic test capable of identifying clinically significant acute ...
(Date:10/11/2017)... YORBA LINDA, CA (PRWEB) , ... October 11, ... ... adapted to upregulate any gene in its endogenous context, enabling overexpression experiments and ... activation (CRISPRa) system with small RNA guides is transformative for performing systematic gain-of-function ...
(Date:10/11/2017)... LAGUNA HILLS, Calif. , Oct. 11, 2017  SkylineDx ... London (ICR) and University of Leeds ... to risk-stratify patients with multiple myeloma (MM), in a multi-centric ... The University of Leeds is the ... UK, and ICR will perform the testing services to include ...
(Date:10/10/2017)... ... October 10, 2017 , ... ... advancing targeted antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) therapeutics, today confirmed licensing rights that give ... Liposomal Nanoparticle), a technology developed in collaboration with Children’s Hospital Los Angeles ...
Breaking Biology Technology: