Gold is not necessarily preciousat least not as a coating on atomic force microscope (AFM) probes.
JILA researchers found that removing an AFM probe's gold coatinguntil now considered helpfulgreatly improved force measurements performed in a liquid, the medium favored for biophysical studies such as stretching DNA or unfolding proteins. As described in Nano Letters,* stripping the gold from the diving-board-shaped probe, or cantilever, with a brief chemical bath improved the precision and stability of force measurements about 10-fold. The advance is expected to quickly and broadly benefit the fields of biophysics and nanoscience.
JILA is a joint institute of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the University of Colorado Boulder.
"What I find interesting about this experiment is it's so incredibly simple. It takes a minute to strip the gold off a commercial cantilever and you get a 10-fold improvement in force precision," says NIST/JILA physicist Thomas Perkins.
To measure forces at the molecular scale, an AFM's cantilever attaches to a molecule with its pointed end and pulls; the resulting deflection of the cantilever is measured. The forces are in the realm of piconewtons (pN), or trillionths of a newton. A unit of force, one newton is roughly the weight of a small apple.
Cantilevers are typically made of silicon or silicon nitride and coated with gold on both sides to reflect light. Perkins discovered the gold coating was a problem while his research group was probing the folding and unfolding of protein molecules over time periods of seconds to minutes. The group previously improved AFM position stability** and holds a related patent,*** but then discovered that the force was drifting. "It's counterintuitive," says Perkins. "Everyone has assumed you needed gold for the enhanced reflectivity, when in fact, gold is clearly the dominant source of force drift on short and long time
|Contact: Laura Ost|
National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST)