Navigation Links
Nitrogen -- the silent species eliminator

Nitrogen pollution from agriculture and fossil fuels is known to be seriously damaging grasslands in the UK. A new European study is starting to show that the effect is Europe-wide, confirming that current policies to protect ecosystems may need a re-think.

When Carly Stevens finished her PhD in 2004, her findings were so significant they were published in Science. Not only that, they were selected as contributing to one of the top ten scientific breakthroughs of that year quite something for a PhD student. Stevens had found the first evidence that nitrogen deposition from the atmosphere was depleting numbers of plant species in British grasslands. There was experimental evidence that this could happen, but we were the first to show the effect is real and happening now, says David Gowing, one of Stevens PhD supervisors at The Open University in the UK.

Stevens studied acid grasslands upland pastures with relatively infertile soils. She found that in places where more nitrogen is deposited, there are fewer plant species. The gradient was so pronounced that one species has been lost for each additional 2.5 kg of nitrogen per hectare deposited every year. Nitrogen from man-made sources, like intensive farming and cars, causes significant air pollution in the UK, and some is deposited from the air on to the land. Deposition is highest in densely-populated areas, and in Britain ranges from about 5 to 35 kg of nitrogen per hectare per year.

The approach to protecting wildlife from nitrogen pollution is to calculate critical load values for different ecosystems how much nitrogen a system can accumulate every year before damage occurs. Infertile habitats, like heathlands and bogs, are the most vulnerable. But Stevens research showed that species are being lost even where deposition is beneath the critical load for grasslands.

The species arent going extinct, Stevens stresses, but if this is happening everywhere, we are moving towards much more species-poor grasslands, and we have no idea what the knock-on effects of that will be.

So last year, Stevens, her UK colleagues David Gowing, Nancy Dise and Owen Mountford, and a team of experts from Germany, the Netherlands and France, embarked on a Europe wide project, part of the European Science Foundation (ESF) EuroDIVERSITY Programme. The projects aim is to see if the effects are the same on a wider range of grasslands, across the entire Atlantic side of Europe. The low countries and northern Germany are the epicentre of European nitrogen deposition, says Gowing.

70 new grasslands in at least nine countries have been added to the picture, including different types of grassland. So far, the first years field results seem to adhere to the pattern, showing that species loss is directly related to long term deposition of nitrogen. The loss in Great Britain is much larger than people had imagined, says Dise. Its almost 25% of species at the average deposition rate. If this is occurring across Europe, it will be a very important find. Wildflowers and other broad-leaved species, rather than grasses, are the hardest hit.

The team has started experiments to see if they can establish how extra nitrogen has these effects. They hope to predict what will happen in the future. Nitrogen deposition in Europe probably peaked in the 1990s, and is coming down now in many places, says Gowing. But it may not be appropriate for policymakers to relax. Having been accumulating nitrogen for 40 years, he continues, we might be near the edge of the cliff where communities will suddenly change. Perhaps well be able to say: you have another five years of accumulating at this rate, so now is the time to act.

What should be done" We are hoping for a clear signal that you can maintain species richness [under nitrogen deposition] by biomass stripping, says Gowing. That means extra mowing and grazing. If we find one, we can offer a management strategy for nature conservation.


Contact: Sofia Valleley
European Science Foundation

Related biology news :

1. Plant hemoglobins: Oxygen handlers critical for nitrogen fixation
2. Anammox bacteria produce nitrogen gas in oceans snackbar
3. Marine bacterium suspected to play role in global carbon and nitrogen cycles
4. Higher carbon dioxide, lack of nitrogen limit plant growth
5. New method confirms importance of fungi in Arctic nitrogen cycle
6. Microbe fixes nitrogen at a blistering 92 C
7. Natures process for nitrogen fixation caught in action
8. Pesticides choke pathway for nature to produce nitrogen for crops
9. Researcher studies, treats military with silent disease
10. A silent pandemic: Industrial chemicals are impairing the brain development of children worldwide
11. New species from old data
Post Your Comments:
(Date:11/2/2015)... Calif. , Nov. 2, 2015  SRI International ... million to provide preclinical development services to the National ... contract, SRI will provide scientific expertise, modern testing and ... variety of preclinical pharmacology and toxicology studies to evaluate ... --> The PREVENT Cancer Drug Development Program ...
(Date:10/29/2015)... ARBOR, Mich. , Oct. 29, 2015 /PRNewswire/ ... Eurofins Genomics for U.S. distribution of its DNA ... DNA-seq kit and Rubicon,s new ThruPLEX Plasma-seq kit. ... to enable the preparation of NGS libraries for ... plasma for diagnostic and prognostic applications in cancer ...
(Date:10/27/2015)... 27, 2015 In the present market scenario, ... for various industry verticals such as banking, healthcare, defense, ... growing demand for secure & simplified access control and ... as hacking of bank accounts, misuse of users, , ... as PC,s, laptops, and smartphones are expected to provide ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:11/25/2015)... , Nov. 25, 2015 Orexigen® Therapeutics, ... will participate in a fireside chat discussion at the ... New York . The discussion is scheduled for ... .  A replay will be available ... Contact:McDavid Stilwell  , Julie NormartVP, Corporate Communications and ...
(Date:11/24/2015)... 24, 2015  Asia-Pacific (APAC) holds the third-largest ... market. The trend of outsourcing to low-cost locations ... higher volume share for the region in the ... margins in the CRO industry will improve. ... ( ), finds that the market earned ...
(Date:11/24/2015)... DIEGO , Nov. 24, 2015 Halozyme Therapeutics, Inc. ... Healthcare Conference in New York on Wednesday, ... Helen Torley , president and CEO, will provide a corporate ... New York at 1:00 p.m. ET/10:00 a.m. PT ... and investor relations, will provide a corporate overview. --> ...
(Date:11/24/2015)... Florida (PRWEB) , ... November 24, 2015 , ... ... biggest event of the year and one of the premier annual events for ... and ran from 8–11 November 2015, where ISPE hosted the largest number of ...
Breaking Biology Technology: