Navigation Links
Nitrates in vegetables protect against gastric ulcers
Date:5/7/2008

Fruits and vegetables that are rich in nitrates protect the stomach from damage. This takes place through conversion of nitrates into nitrites by the bacteria in the oral cavity and subsequent transformation into biologically active nitric oxide in the stomach. The Swedish researcher Joel Petersson has described the process, which also means that antibacterial mouthwashes can be harmful for the stomach.

"Nitrates in food have long been erroneously linked to an increased risk of cancer," says Joel Petersson of Uppsala University's Department of Medical Cell Biology.

He instead thinks that nitrate-rich vegetables such as spinach, lettuce, radishes and beetroot have a positive affect on the stomach by activating the mucous membranes' own protective mechanisms, thus reducing the risk of problems such as gastric ulcers.

In the body the blood circulation transports nitrates to the salivary glands, where they are concentrated. When we have eaten nitrate-rich food our saliva thus contains large amounts of nitrates, which the bacteria of the oral cavity partially convert into nitrites. When we swallow the nitrites they come into contact with acid gastric juice, and are then converted into the biologically active substance nitric oxide. This results in our developing high levels of nitric oxide in the stomach after eating vegetables.

It has long been known that nitric oxide is produced by various enzymes in the human body, but the fact that nitric oxide can also be formed in the stomach from nitrites in the saliva, entirely without the involvement of enzymes, is a relatively new discovery. Researchers still have very little idea of how the stomach is affected by these high levels of nitric oxide. Joel Petersson's thesis shows that the nitric oxide that is formed in the stomach stimulates the protective mechanisms of the mucous membrane because the stomach constantly has to protect itself so as not to be broken down together with the food ingested. Two such important defence mechanisms are the stomach's constant renewal of the mucous layer that covers the mucous membrane and its maintenance of a stable blood flow in the mucous membrane. The nitric oxide widens the blood vessels in the mucous membrane, thus increasing the blood flow and regulating elimination of the important mucus. Together, these factors lead to a more resistant mucous membrane.

Using animal models Joel Petersson and his colleagues have shown that nitrate additives in food protect against both gastric ulcers and the minor damage that often occurs in the gastrointestinal tract as a result of ingestion of anti-inflammatory drugs.

"These sorts of drugs are very common in the event of pain and inflammation. They have the major disadvantage of causing a large number of serious side effects in the form of bleeding and ulcers in the gastrointestinal tract. With the aid of a nitrate-rich diet you can thus avoid such damage," he explains.

The thesis also shows that the bacteria in the oral cavity are very important to the process of nitrates in food protecting the stomach's mucous membrane. This has been examined in that rats have been given nitrate-rich feed, whereby some of them have also simultaneously received an antibacterial oral spray. When these rats were then given anti inflammatory drugs, damage to the mucous membrane only occurred in the ones that had received the oral spray. In the latter the nitrates no longer had a protective effect on the mucous membrane, as the oral spray had killed the important bacteria that normally convert nitrates into nitrites.

"This shows how important our oral flora is. The fact that these bacteria are not just involved in our oral hygiene but also play an important role in the normal functions of the gastrointestinal tract is not entirely new. It is currently an important issue, as antibacterial mouthwashes have become more and more common. If a mouthwash eliminates the bacterial flora in the mouth this may be important to the normal functioning of the stomach, as the protective levels of nitric oxide greatly decrease," says Joel Petersson.

In his opinion the research results also provide a new approach to the importance of fruit and vegetables in our diet.

"If we followed the National Swedish Food Administration's recommendation and ate 500 g of fruit and vegetables per person per day it would definitely be better for our stomachs.

Nitrates in vegetables protect against gastric ulcers

Fruits and vegetables that are rich in nitrates protect the stomach from damage. This takes place through conversion of nitrates into nitrites by the bacteria in the oral cavity and subsequent transformation into biologically active nitric oxide in the stomach. The Swedish researcher Joel Petersson has described the process, which also means that antibacterial mouthwashes can be harmful for the stomach.

"Nitrates in food have long been erroneously linked to an increased risk of cancer," says Joel Petersson of Uppsala University's Department of Medical Cell Biology.

He instead thinks that nitrate-rich vegetables such as spinach, lettuce, radishes and beetroot have a positive affect on the stomach by activating the mucous membranes' own protective mechanisms, thus reducing the risk of problems such as gastric ulcers.

In the body the blood circulation transports nitrates to the salivary glands, where they are concentrated. When we have eaten nitrate-rich food our saliva thus contains large amounts of nitrates, which the bacteria of the oral cavity partially convert into nitrites. When we swallow the nitrites they come into contact with acid gastric juice, and are then converted into the biologically active substance nitric oxide. This results in our developing high levels of nitric oxide in the stomach after eating vegetables.

It has long been known that nitric oxide is produced by various enzymes in the human body, but the fact that nitric oxide can also be formed in the stomach from nitrites in the saliva, entirely without the involvement of enzymes, is a relatively new discovery. Researchers still have very little idea of how the stomach is affected by these high levels of nitric oxide. Joel Petersson's thesis shows that the nitric oxide that is formed in the stomach stimulates the protective mechanisms of the mucous membrane because the stomach constantly has to protect itself so as not to be broken down together with the food ingested. Two such important defence mechanisms are the stomach's constant renewal of the mucous layer that covers the mucous membrane and its maintenance of a stable blood flow in the mucous membrane. The nitric oxide widens the blood vessels in the mucous membrane, thus increasing the blood flow and regulating elimination of the important mucus. Together, these factors lead to a more resistant mucous membrane.

Using animal models Joel Petersson and his colleagues have shown that nitrate additives in food protect against both gastric ulcers and the minor damage that often occurs in the gastrointestinal tract as a result of ingestion of anti-inflammatory drugs.

"These sorts of drugs are very common in the event of pain and inflammation. They have the major disadvantage of causing a large number of serious side effects in the form of bleeding and ulcers in the gastrointestinal tract. With the aid of a nitrate-rich diet you can thus avoid such damage," he explains.

The thesis also shows that the bacteria in the oral cavity are very important to the process of nitrates in food protecting the stomach's mucous membrane. This has been examined in that rats have been given nitrate-rich feed, whereby some of them have also simultaneously received an antibacterial oral spray. When these rats were then given anti inflammatory drugs, damage to the mucous membrane only occurred in the ones that had received the oral spray. In the latter the nitrates no longer had a protective effect on the mucous membrane, as the oral spray had killed the important bacteria that normally convert nitrates into nitrites.

"This shows how important our oral flora is. The fact that these bacteria are not just involved in our oral hygiene but also play an important role in the normal functions of the gastrointestinal tract is not entirely new. It is currently an important issue, as antibacterial mouthwashes have become more and more common. If a mouthwash eliminates the bacterial flora in the mouth this may be important to the normal functioning of the stomach, as the protective levels of nitric oxide greatly decrease," says Joel Petersson.

In his opinion the research results also provide a new approach to the importance of fruit and vegetables in our diet.

"If we followed the National Swedish Food Administration's recommendation and ate 500 g of fruit and vegetables per person per day it would definitely be better for our stomachs.


'/>"/>

Contact: Joel Petersson
Joel.Petersson@mcb.uu.se
46-070-418-5375
Uppsala University
Source:Eurekalert

Related biology news :

1. Got carrots? Vegetables may have bone to pick as calcium providers
2. Kids eat more fruits, vegetables when schools offer salad bar
3. Chemical in red wine, fruits and vegetables stops cancer, heart disease, depending on the dose
4. Inflammation triggers cell fusions that could protect neurons, Stanford research shows
5. Vobile Launches VideoDNA Live; Enables Real-Time Digital Content Protection for Live Broadcast Events
6. Evidence now suggests eating soy foods in puberty protects against breast cancer
7. Rare genetic mutations protect against hypertension
8. Smithsonian researchers show major role of bats in plant protection
9. Academy establishes Asia Center to protect the environment
10. Fueling ethanol production while protecting water quality
11. Researchers use high tech in mold watermark to protect plastic products from piracy
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:2/11/2016)... , Feb. 11, 2016  According to new research ... mainstream. More than 200 fingerprint, iris, and eye-vein ... under 70 brand names. This includes market leaders ... ZTE. Acuity projects that 600 million biometric smartphones ... global installed base. Maxine Most , ...
(Date:2/11/2016)...  Vigilant Solutions announces today that its license plate recognition ... Lee,s Summit Police Department to improve ... of a homicide suspect. Kansas City ... square miles and is home to roughly 100,000 residents. ... mobile license plate reader system and also leverages Vigilant,s network ...
(Date:2/10/2016)... India , February 10, 2016 /PRNewswire/ ... --> According to 2016 iris recognition ... identification iris recognition is more widely accepted ... available with both fingerprint and iris recognition ... the user to avoid purchasing two individual ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:2/12/2016)... ... , ... Global Stem Cells Group has announced an inaugural conference ... Quito, Ecuador, Feb. 24-March 6, 2016. The new facility will provide advanced protocols and ... Stem Cells Group CEO Benito Novas will host the event, which will begin with ...
(Date:2/12/2016)... , Feb. 12, 2016 Biocom, the association representing ... took a group of San Diego ... of its 2016 Precision Medicine Advocacy Fly-In. Biocom Fly-In participants ... and Drug Administration (FDA), the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid ... as San Diego U.S. Representatives Susan Davis and ...
(Date:2/12/2016)... ... February 12, 2016 , ... The Pittcon 2016 Exposition, which ... will include 848 exhibitors (count as of February 9) of which 119 are ... used by the scientific community in industrial, academic, and government labs. The Exposition ...
(Date:2/12/2016)... , Feb. 12, 2016  BD (Becton, Dickinson and ... technology company, today announced the launch of the BD ... and Technology (AGBT) Meeting. --> ... genomic research by providing cost effective NGS library preparation ... a high-throughput, fully integrated, next generation sequencing (NGS) library ...
Breaking Biology Technology: