3. Preventing Programmed Cell Death In Vivo
Christopher K. Thompson and Eliot A. Brenowitz
The size of song nuclei in some songbirds varies with seasonal changes in androgen levels, growing during the reproductive season and then shrinking via neurodegeneration. These changes can be induced experimentally in white-crowned sparrows by controlling testosterone levels and photoperiod. To determine whether inhibiting caspasethe primary mediator of programmed cell deathcould prevent neurodegeneration, Thompson and Brenowitz infused caspase inhibitors unilaterally into HVC, a song nucleus of white-crowned sparrows, using an osmotic pump mounted in a backpack. HVC volume, soma size, and neuron number were greater in the infused nucleus than in the contralateral nucleus after testosterone withdrawal, and the number of degenerating neurons was lower. Furthermore, neurons in a downstream target nucleus of HVC were larger on the infused side. These results indicate that sustained infusion of caspase inhibitors can protect telencephalic neurons from programmed cell death, and may be a promising therapeutic intervention for neurodegenerative diseases.
4. Neurological Effects of Folate Deficiency
Golo Kronenberg, Christoph Harms, Robert W. Sobol, Fernando Cardozo-Pelaez, Heinz Linhart, Benjamin Winter, Mustafa Balkaya, Karen Gertz, Shanna B. Gay, David Cox, Sarah Eckart, Michael Ahmadi, Georg Juckel, Gerd Kempermann, Rainer Hellweg, Reinhard Sohr, Heide Hrtnagl, Samuel
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Society for Neuroscience