Navigation Links
Newly identified small-RNA pathway defends genome against the enemy within
Date:3/16/2014

Cold Spring Harbor, NY Reproductive cells, such as an egg and sperm, join to form stem cells that can mature into any tissue type. But how do reproductive cells arise? We humans are born with all of the reproductive cells that we will ever produce. But in plants things are very different. They first generate mature, adult cells and only later "reprogram" some of them to produce eggs and sperm.

For a plant to create reproductive cells, it must first erase a key code, a series of tags attached to DNA across the genome known as epigenetic marks. These marks distinguish active and inactive genes. But the marks serve another critical role. They keep a host of damaging transposons, or "jumping genes," inactive. As the cell wipes away the epigenetic code, it activates transposons, placing the newly formed reproductive cell in great danger of sustaining genetic damage.

Today, researchers at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) led by Professor and HHMI Investigator Robert Martienssen announce the discovery of a pathway that helps to keep transposons inactive even when the epigenetic code is erased.

"Jumping genes" were first identified more than 50 years ago at CSHL by Nobel-prize winning researcher Barbara McClintock. Subsequent study revealed that jumping genes (or transposable elements) are long, repetitive stretches of DNA. They resemble remnants of ancient viruses that have inserted themselves into their host DNA. When active, transposons copy themselves and jump around in the genome. They can insert themselves right in the middle of genes, thus interrupting them. Scientists have found that more than 50% of the human genome is made up of transposons. Remarkably, in plants, up to 90% of the genome is composed of these repetitive sequences.

When a transposon is activated, it can insert itself within critical genes, disrupting gene function and causing infertility and many diseases. To combat this ever present threat from within, the cell has devised stringent mechanisms to maintain tight control over transposon activity. The primary mechanism is the epigenetic code, a kind of secondary layer of genetic information that determines how our DNA is used. Epigenetic marks decorate human DNA, delineating active and inactive genes. Regions of the genome that are rich in transposons are heavily marked with inactivating signals, which silence transposons.

The problem for plants, in particular, is that some cells eliminate nearly all epigenetic marks during reproduction. "The loss of these marks puts the cell in tremendous danger, especially at critical times like reproduction," says CSHL postdoctoral fellow Kate Creasey, Ph.D., lead author on the paper appearing in Nature today. "There must be another mechanism to prevent this kind of widespread genomic disruption."

The CSHL team discovered a pathway that does precisely this. The pathway they describe acts as a fail-safe to prevent transposon damage when epigenetic silencing is lost. The cell uses small RNAs, known as microRNAs, to accomplish the task. MicroRNAs were already known to regulate gene expression during development. "Now we show that microRNAs actually target transposons when they are activated, for example in the germline (or reproductive cells)," says Martienssen. "This hints that they may have evolved as a transposon defense mechanism."

Working in collaboration with Professor Blake Meyers at the University of Delaware, Martienssen and his colleagues found that microRNAs silence transposons through a new class of small RNAs known as easiRNAs. Animals have a similar transposon defense mechanism, says Martienssen. "The pathway we have discovered parallels with small RNA systems in animal germlines (called piwi-interacting RNAs, or piRNAs) which also protect against transposons when the genome is being reprogrammed."


'/>"/>

Contact: Jaclyn Jansen
jjansen@cshl.edu
516-367-8455
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Source:Eurekalert  

Related biology news :

1. Newly discovered catalyst could lead to the low-cost production of clean methanol
2. Newly discovered marsupial the victim of fatal attraction
3. Newly discovered signaling pathway could impact a variety of autoinflammatory diseases
4. Newly discovered human peptide may become a new treatment for diabetes
5. Attention Vical Incorporated Investors: Vical Misled Investors According to a Newly Filed Class Action
6. Newly identified proteins make promising targets for blocking graft-vs.-host disease
7. UF: Newly discovered tiger shark migration pattern might explain attacks near Hawaii
8. Newly discovered ocean plume could be major source of iron
9. Newly discovered switch plays dual role in memory formation
10. Newly discovered bacterial partnership changes ocean chemistry
11. ACLS Online Renewal Course from United Medical Education Now Features Newly-Updated Course Materials
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
Related Image:
Newly identified small-RNA pathway defends genome against the enemy within
(Date:1/8/2016)... , January 8, 2016 NXTD ... and WorldVentures ® , a privately held leading direct ... Inc. 5000 fastest-growing company announced that on ... of $2 million in Nxt-ID to develop a proprietary ... Nxt-ID,s Wocket ® , a unique smart wallet that ...
(Date:1/7/2016)... 7, 2016 Various factors have contributed ... such as biologics and biosimilars. Some of these ... expenditure, growing demand for cost-effective alternatives, growing burden ... are similar versions of their corresponding patented biologic ... quality, safety, and efficacy. The global biosimilars market ...
(Date:1/6/2016)... 6, 2016  Varam Capital, a provider of micro-finance ... to deliver advanced authentication solutions to their clients. Varam ... poor. A loan of a few thousand rupees may ... the ability to purchase livestock or equipment for a ... stock for a local store. ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:2/4/2016)... ... February 04, 2016 , ... Shimadzu Scientific Instruments will ... live demos and poster sessions, and present on the analysis of mycotoxins and ... March 6 to 10 at the Georgia World Congress Center in Atlanta, Georgia. ...
(Date:2/4/2016)... PARK, Calif. , Feb. 4, 2016   DelMar ... biopharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of new ... 18 th Annual BIO CEO & Investor Conference ... in New York, NY . ... an update on the ongoing clinical trial of VAL-083 ...
(Date:2/4/2016)... Sinovac Biotech Ltd. ("Sinovac" or the "Company") (NASDAQ: ... China , today announced that the ... February 4, 2016 a preliminary non-binding proposal letter, dated ... V-Ming ( Shanghai ) Investment Holdings Co., ... Shenzhen ) Fund Management Co., Ltd., Beijing ...
(Date:2/3/2016)... SAN DIEGO , Feb. 3, 2016 /PRNewswire/ ... medicine company with the first pluripotent stem cell-derived ... 1 diabetes in clinical-stage development, today announced that ... Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson & Johnson, have ... BetaLogics group into ViaCyte.  The agreement provides ViaCyte ...
Breaking Biology Technology: