Navigation Links
New understanding of brain chemistry could prevent brain damage after injury
Date:5/15/2011

A protective molecule has been identified in the brain which, if used artificially, may prevent brain damage from the likes of stroke, head injury and Alzheimer's.

By looking at what happens in the brain after an injury, new research has finally ended speculation over whether a key molecule, 'KCC2' causes brain cell death after an injury or prevents it. The finding, published today (16th May 2011) in The Journal of Physiology now opens the door to the development of artificial forms of the compound which could provide 'neuroprotection' to those who have suffered a brain injury to prevent further damage.

Lead author of the research Dr Igor Medina from the Universit de la Mditerrane said: "Neuron damage can result from acute events such as stroke, epilepsy or head injury or by chronic degeneration found in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's.

"When brain tissue is damaged, cells often continue to die after the initial stimulus has stopped. So it is important to find a way of stopping this cascade of cell death."

KCC2 is known as a 'neuronal membrane transporter' and plays a valuable role in regulating brain cell growth and their connections with other neurons. Previous research has shown that the level of KCC2 drops drastically after the brain has been injured, but it was unknown whether this drop was causing the damage to the cells, or was decreasing because of it.

"The destiny of neurons in a damaged brain depends on a tiny equilibrium between pro-survival and pro-death signals. We wanted to know what KCC2 was signalling for was it killing neurons or protecting them after an injury? Our study has found that KCC2 actually rescues the damaged cells."

The team studied damaged neurons from the hippocampus region of the brain, an area responsible for attention, spatial memory and navigation. They removed KCC2 altogether from damaged cells and found they died. But when they artificially increased the levels of KCC2 (by stimulating its expression using gene therapy), they found the damaged cells were protected from further damage, and death.

Dr Medina continued: "The death of neurons in the brain can be triggered by an imbalance of oxygen known as oxidative damage, or where cells are incorrectly instructed to die by a neurotransmitter a process known as excitotoxicity. KCC2 protects against both. It's really encouraging that we have identified a means of potentially protecting the brain from these common conditions."

Now the protective function of KCC2 is known, scientists can look at ways to maintain its levels in the brains of injured patients and prevent the cascade of damage that occurs. This could be achieved pharmaceutically, to naturally increase the levels of KCC2, or with gene therapy to introduce artificial KCC2.

"Neuroprotective agents that may stem from this research would benefit the victims of car crashes, stroke and those suffering with epilepsy, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's it's a major focus for further studies," concluded Dr Medina.


'/>"/>

Contact: Clare Kingston
ckingston@physoc.org
44-020-726-95721
Wiley-Blackwell
Source:Eurekalert

Related biology news :

1. From a bucket of seawater, new understanding of the ocean
2. ISU research leads to understanding of how crops deal with stress -- yields biggest enemy
3. TGen findings contribute to understanding of diabetic kidney disease
4. A better understanding of the aging immune system
5. Stem cells may be key to understanding the origins of colon cancer and detecting relapse
6. Pig model of cystic fibrosis improves understanding of disease
7. Monash scientists uncover a new understanding of male puberty
8. Immunologist J. John Cohen receives the 2010 AAAS Public Understanding of Science and Technology Award
9. Massive Daphnia genome leads to understanding gene-environment interactions
10. Research uncovers key to understanding cause of lupus
11. Extracting cellular engines may aid in understanding mitochondrial diseases
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:5/16/2017)... 2017   Bridge Patient Portal , an ... MD EMR Systems , an electronic medical record ... have established a partnership to build an interface ... GE Centricity™ products, including Centricity Practice Solution (CPS), ... These new integrations will allow healthcare delivery networks ...
(Date:4/19/2017)... York , April 19, 2017 ... as its vendor landscape is marked by the presence ... market is however held by five major players - ... Together these companies accounted for nearly 61% of the ... the leading companies in the global military biometrics market ...
(Date:4/13/2017)... 13, 2017 UBM,s Advanced Design and Manufacturing ... feature emerging and evolving technology through its 3D Printing ... run alongside the expo portion of the event and ... demonstrations focused on trending topics within 3D printing and ... manufacturing event will take place June 13-15, 2017 at the ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:8/16/2017)... King of Prussia, PA (PRWEB) , ... August 16, 2017 , ... ... leaders will be taking part in sessions at the ISPE Annual Meeting and ... the Marriott Marquis San Diego Marina. The event’s theme is “Driving innovation to advance ...
(Date:8/16/2017)... ... 16, 2017 , ... Recent studies show that cancer cells ... specific cancers, such as breast, prostate, or lung, target vital pathways active in ... advanced prostate cancer. , This therapy limits the production and effectiveness of ...
(Date:8/16/2017)... ... August 16, 2017 , ... Today, 3Bar ... has secured $2M in funding from an impressive group of investors, including Rev1 ... Thrive Fund. With this investment, 3Bar is broadening availability of its groundbreaking offering ...
(Date:8/16/2017)... -- This year,s edition of the Inc. 5000 features a now-familiar name: BioPoint ... made the list for the third year in a row. Now in ... based on a set of quantitative metrics. In addition, BioPoint was also ... the Bay State . ... Inc. 5000 ...
Breaking Biology Technology: