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New tuberculosis test more than skin deep
Date:6/5/2014

A new screening process for tuberculosis (TB) infections in Canadian prisons could mean that more than 50 per cent of those screened won't undergo unnecessary treatment due to false positives.

According to research by Wendy Wobeser and medical resident Ilan Schwartz, a test for TB using interferon-gamma release assays (IGRA) will detect a pre-existing TB infection, or latent TB, that might not present itself for many years, or until the body becomes weakened by another source.

"It's fairly uncommon that latent TB will reactivate only about a 10 per cent chance," says Dr. Wobeser, the study's lead author and an infectious diseases expert at Queen's. "That said, given the crowding in corrections facilities, the mass exposure of inmates to TB could be disastrous."

The IGRA test was developed in the last 10-15 years and diagnoses a latent TB infection. The body's immune system is provoked with a small amount of protein from the TB virus and if the body has previously been infected then a reaction will occur and the patient's blood will test positive for TB.

The pre-existing tuberculosis skin test (TST) for TB has been used for over 100 years but comes with two main limitations.

  • The current test requires two visits to determine the results: one to perform the test and then another visit a couple of days later to read the results.
  • Depending on the patient's exposure to other mycobacteria or the BCG vaccine, the current TB test can give many false positives.

The study group included representation from Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC), Public Health Ontario (PHO), Correctional Services Canada (CSC) and the local public health agency. Inmates were tested at a Canadian intake institution before moving on to different corrections facilities. Ninety-six inmates tested positive for TB via the TST test. Only 31 of these inmates were confirmed as true latent TB infection when using the IGRA test.

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Contact: Rosie Hales
rosie.hales@queensu.ca
613-533-6000 x77513
Queen's University
Source:Eurekalert

Page: 1 2

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