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New study discovers powerful function of single protein that controls neurotransmission
Date:5/13/2012

napses carry out their function, which is to release neurotransmitters."

Before this study, it was known that Lyrica, which is used for neuropathic pain, seizures and fibromyalgia, binds to alpha 2 delta, but little was understood about how this protein works to control synapses.

Lifting up the Hood

Dr. Ryan is building what he calls a "shop manual" of neurological function, much of which centers on synaptic neurotransmission. In 2007 and 2008, he discovered crucial clues to how neurons repackage the chemicals used to signal across synapses. In 2011, Dr. Ryan discovered that distinct neurons differently tune the speed by which they package these chemicals. And in a recent study published April 29 in Nature Neuroscience, he described, for the first time, the molecular mechanisms at the synapse that control the release of dopamine, a crucial neurotransmitter.

"We are looking under the hood of these machines for the first time," he says. "Many neurological diseases are considered to arise from pathologies of synaptic function. The synapse is so complex; at least a few thousand genes control how they work. Repairing them through treatment requires that we understand how they work."

Dr. Ryan and his team often use two tools to conduct these studies -- they pin fluorescent tags on to molecules involved in synaptic function, and use ultra sensitive microscopy technology to watch these molecules up close and in real-time.

The researchers used the same toolkit to examine the function of calcium channels, which triggers neurotransmission. "At all synapses, the secretion of a neurotransmitter is driven by the arrival of an electric impulse, initiated by another neuron," Dr. Ryan says. When this impulse arrives at the nerve terminal it triggers the opening of calcium channels. The calcium that rushes in is the key trigger that drives a synapse to secrete its neurotransmitter.

"We have known for the pas
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Contact: Lauren Woods
law2014@med.cornell.edu
212-821-0560
New York- Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center/Weill Cornell Medical College
Source:Eurekalert

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