In the study, the researchers examined inflammatory cell and cytokine production in brain tissue from a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated rat model that mimics many of the neuropathologic changes associated with PD. Concurrently, they monitored the appearance of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), a neuronal protective agent, and circulating nitric oxide (NO) levels. They also examined the immune system associated cells in the olfactory bulb of the brain. It is known that Parkinson's starts with this mechanism.
Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with intravenous LPS in saline, 12 control rats were treated with saline, and all were maintained for up to 48 hours before euthanasia and brain removal. Brains were removed from both groups at defined times, blood and other tests were conducted, and images of various sections of the brain, including the olfactory bulb, cortex and cerebellum, were taken using fluorescent microscopy.
Results and Conclusions
In general, the researchers found that a single injection of LPS elicited a systemic inflammatory response in the rats, as indicated by an elevation in certain circulatory cytokines. Tissue taken from the olfactory bulb showed the presence of immune associated cells. Individual cytokines within the olfactory bulb showed an increase in certain types of cytokines. Taken together, the complete analysis indicated that the single dose of LPS stimulated an inflammatory response that closely resembled the hallmarks of the development of the disease.
The results suggest an involvement of both the peripheral and the central nervous system immune components in response to inflammation and inflammatory episodes. As a result, the researchers sugges
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Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology