Navigation Links
New origin found for a critical immune response

DURHAM, N.C. An immune system response that is critical to the first stages of fighting off viruses and harmful bacteria comes from an entirely different direction than most scientists had thought, according to a finding by researchers at the Duke University Medical Center.

"This finding will have important implications in vaccine science and autoimmune disease therapy development," said Michael Gunn, M.D., an immunologist and cardiologist at Duke and senior author of the study published in Nature Immunology.

Type 1 helper (TH1) T cell immune responses are critical for the control of viruses and certain bacteria. Immunologists have generally believed that TH1 responses are induced by rare immune cells, called dendritic cells. When activated by infection or vaccination, the dendritic cells were thought to move from peripheral tissues into lymph nodes to stimulate T cell responses.

The Duke researchers found, however, that the dendritic cells that stimulate TH1 responses didn't come from peripheral tissues, but rather arose from monocytes, a common cell type in the blood, that moved directly into lymph nodes after infection.

"The result speaks to the most basic principles of immune response to pathogens," Gunn said. "It may also explain the poor results we have seen in attempts to develop effective dendritic-cell vaccines."

Gunn previously had identified a particular protein, known as a chemokine, that stimulates the migration of activated dendritic cells from peripheral tissues to lymph nodes. The Duke researchers generated a TH1 response in laboratory mice that lacked this chemokine with influenza viruses.

"We really thought the mice would not be able to generate much of an immune response at all," Gunn said, because they wouldn't be able to mobilize dendritic cells. "The mice, however, had increased TH1 responses. We knew we had to find what was really causing the response."

One scientist who knew about these findings told Gunn the Duke group would "never figure this out" because their findings were so unconventional.

To solve the mystery, the Duke team studied several different types of mice, which were missing other chemokines or chemokine receptors. They found that mice without the Ccr2 chemokine receptor that controls the migration of inflammatory monocytes had much lower accumulation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells and TH1 responses.

The scientists concluded that there is a blood-derived lymph node dendritic cell type that has a key role in developing acute T-cell responses. "For so long, dendritic cells from tissues were the obvious answer," Gunn said. "We found out that that's not always the case."

The team now plans to look at the blood-derived dendritic cells under different conditions to see if they may have other activities. "We observed the activity of these cells after TH1-inducing stimuli, like influenza," Gunn said. "Next we'd like to study other types of immune stimuli to see how the cells respond."

Understanding how dendritic cells stimulate different types of immune response would open the door to enhancing or inhibiting these responses, a major goal of immunologists trying to prevent infections or control autoimmune disease, Gunn said.


Contact: Mary Jane Gore
Duke University Medical Center

Related biology news :

1. Comet probes reveal evidence of origin of life, scientists claim
2. Good earth: Brown chemists show origin of soil-scented geosmin
3. Georgia Tech/Emory Center to study origin of life
4. Venous origin of the mammalian lymphatic vasculature
5. St. Jude settles century-old debate on origin of mammalian network of lymphatic vessels
6. The accumulation of sugar in neurons may explain the origin of several neurodegenerative diseases
7. Researchers find origin of breathable atmosphere half a billion years ago
8. New hypothesis for origin of life proposed
9. Hinode: new insights on the origin of solar wind
10. Research pioneer in the developmental origins of psychiatric illness is awarded the Sackler prize
11. Avian origins: new analysis confirms ancient beginnings
Post Your Comments:
(Date:4/13/2017)... SANTA MONICA, Calif. , April 13, 2017 /PRNewswire/ ... New York will feature emerging and ... Innovation Summits. Both Innovation Summits will run alongside the ... variety of speaker sessions, panels and demonstrations focused on ... east coast,s largest advanced design and manufacturing event will ...
(Date:4/11/2017)... , April 11, 2017 NXT-ID, Inc. ... technology company, announces the appointment of independent Directors Mr. ... to its Board of Directors, furthering the company,s corporate governance ... Gino ... we look forward to their guidance and benefiting from their ...
(Date:4/4/2017)... YORK , April 4, 2017   EyeLock ... today announced that the United States Patent and Trademark ... patent broadly covers the linking of an iris image ... same transaction) and represents the company,s 45 th ... latest patent is very timely given the multi-modal biometric ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:10/11/2017)... Wayne. NJ (PRWEB) , ... October 11, 2017 , ... Personal eye wash is a ... rinse one eye at a time. So which eye do you rinse first if a ... you have Plum Duo Eye Wash with its unique dual eye piece. , ...
(Date:10/11/2017)... the Netherlands and LAGUNA HILLS, Calif. ... The Institute of Cancer Research, London ... use MMprofilerâ„¢ with SKY92, SkylineDx,s prognostic tool to risk-stratify patients ... trial known as MUK nine . The University of ... trial, which is partly funded by Myeloma UK, and ICR ...
(Date:10/10/2017)... CALIF. (PRWEB) , ... October 10, 2017 , ... San ... part of its corporate rebranding initiative announced today. The bold new look is ... reach, as the company moves into a significant growth period. , It will also ...
(Date:10/10/2017)... International research firm Parks Associates announced today that ... TMA 2017 Annual Meeting , October 11 in Scottsdale, ... security market and how smart safety and security products impact the competitive ... Parks Associates: Smart Home Devices: Main ... "The residential security market has experienced continued ...
Breaking Biology Technology: