Navigation Links
New origin found for a critical immune response

DURHAM, N.C. An immune system response that is critical to the first stages of fighting off viruses and harmful bacteria comes from an entirely different direction than most scientists had thought, according to a finding by researchers at the Duke University Medical Center.

"This finding will have important implications in vaccine science and autoimmune disease therapy development," said Michael Gunn, M.D., an immunologist and cardiologist at Duke and senior author of the study published in Nature Immunology.

Type 1 helper (TH1) T cell immune responses are critical for the control of viruses and certain bacteria. Immunologists have generally believed that TH1 responses are induced by rare immune cells, called dendritic cells. When activated by infection or vaccination, the dendritic cells were thought to move from peripheral tissues into lymph nodes to stimulate T cell responses.

The Duke researchers found, however, that the dendritic cells that stimulate TH1 responses didn't come from peripheral tissues, but rather arose from monocytes, a common cell type in the blood, that moved directly into lymph nodes after infection.

"The result speaks to the most basic principles of immune response to pathogens," Gunn said. "It may also explain the poor results we have seen in attempts to develop effective dendritic-cell vaccines."

Gunn previously had identified a particular protein, known as a chemokine, that stimulates the migration of activated dendritic cells from peripheral tissues to lymph nodes. The Duke researchers generated a TH1 response in laboratory mice that lacked this chemokine with influenza viruses.

"We really thought the mice would not be able to generate much of an immune response at all," Gunn said, because they wouldn't be able to mobilize dendritic cells. "The mice, however, had increased TH1 responses. We knew we had to find what was really causing the response."

One scientist who knew about these findings told Gunn the Duke group would "never figure this out" because their findings were so unconventional.

To solve the mystery, the Duke team studied several different types of mice, which were missing other chemokines or chemokine receptors. They found that mice without the Ccr2 chemokine receptor that controls the migration of inflammatory monocytes had much lower accumulation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells and TH1 responses.

The scientists concluded that there is a blood-derived lymph node dendritic cell type that has a key role in developing acute T-cell responses. "For so long, dendritic cells from tissues were the obvious answer," Gunn said. "We found out that that's not always the case."

The team now plans to look at the blood-derived dendritic cells under different conditions to see if they may have other activities. "We observed the activity of these cells after TH1-inducing stimuli, like influenza," Gunn said. "Next we'd like to study other types of immune stimuli to see how the cells respond."

Understanding how dendritic cells stimulate different types of immune response would open the door to enhancing or inhibiting these responses, a major goal of immunologists trying to prevent infections or control autoimmune disease, Gunn said.


Contact: Mary Jane Gore
Duke University Medical Center

Related biology news :

1. Comet probes reveal evidence of origin of life, scientists claim
2. Good earth: Brown chemists show origin of soil-scented geosmin
3. Georgia Tech/Emory Center to study origin of life
4. Venous origin of the mammalian lymphatic vasculature
5. St. Jude settles century-old debate on origin of mammalian network of lymphatic vessels
6. The accumulation of sugar in neurons may explain the origin of several neurodegenerative diseases
7. Researchers find origin of breathable atmosphere half a billion years ago
8. New hypothesis for origin of life proposed
9. Hinode: new insights on the origin of solar wind
10. Research pioneer in the developmental origins of psychiatric illness is awarded the Sackler prize
11. Avian origins: new analysis confirms ancient beginnings
Post Your Comments:
(Date:11/12/2015)... Nov. 12, 2015  Arxspan has entered into ... and Harvard for use of its ArxLab cloud-based ... tools. The partnership will support the institute,s efforts ... chemical research information internally and with external collaborators. ... for managing the Institute,s electronic laboratory notebook, compound ...
(Date:11/9/2015)... DUBLIN , Nov. 09, 2015 /PRNewswire/ ... announced the addition of the "Global ... to their offering. --> ... "Global Law Enforcement Biometrics Market 2015-2019" ... Research and Markets ( ) ...
(Date:10/29/2015)... 2015  The J. Craig Venter Institute (JCVI) policy ... and Biosecurity: Lessons Learned and Options for the Future," ... Human Services guidance for synthetic biology providers has worked ... --> --> Synthetic biology promises ... to pose unique biosecurity threats. It now is easier ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:11/30/2015)... ... 2015 , ... Imagine Exhibitions and Universal Partnerships & Licensing ... March 2016 at Melbourne Museum in Melbourne, Australia. Immediately following the Australia premiere, ... dates. The Exhibition is based on Universal Pictures’ Jurassic World, one of the ...
(Date:11/30/2015)... SAN DIEGO , Nov. 30, 2015 ... today that the company has acquired Cypher Genomics, Inc., ... and robust human genomic interpretation software solutions. The ... who will join HLI including Cypher CEO and Co-founder, ... head of HLI,s Pediatric Business.  Financial details of the ...
(Date:11/30/2015)... DIEGO , Nov. 30, 2015  HUYA Bioscience ... China,s pharmaceutical innovations, today announced it ... Drug Development Fund (KDDF) to foster collaboration between KDDF ... development and commercialization of healthcare products for the global ... as an important source of new innovative preclinical and ...
(Date:11/30/2015)... Ill. , Nov. 30, 2015  AbbVie, is ... program that focuses on a daily routine for managing ... take their medication can affect the way the body ... follow to their a daily routine are important. The ... to help patients better manage their hypothyroidism by establishing ...
Breaking Biology Technology: