Navigation Links
New methods identify thousands of new DNA sequences missing from the human genome reference map
Date:4/20/2010

Researchers have discovered 2,363 new DNA sequences corresponding to 730 regions on the human genome by using new approaches. These sequences represent segments of the genome that were not charted in the reference map of the human genome.

"A large portion of those sequences are either missing, fragmented or misaligned when compared to results from next-generation sequencing genome assemblies on the same samples," said Dr. Evan Eichler, senior author on the findings published April 19 in the advanced online edition of Nature Methods. Eichler is a University of Washington (UW) professor of genome sciences and an investigator with the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. "These findings suggest that new genome assemblies based solely on next-generation sequencing might miss many of these sites."

Dr. Jeffrey M. Kidd was lead author of the article, which described the new techniques the research team used to find some of the missing sequences.

Kidd headed the study while earning his Ph.D. at the University of Washington in the Eichler lab. Kidd is now a postdoctoral fellow at Stanford University.

"Over the past several years, the extent to which the structure of the genome varies among humans has become clearer. This variation suggested that there must be portions of the human genome where DNA sequences had yet to be discovered, annotated and characterized," he said "We hope that these sequences ultimately will be included as part of future releases of the reference human genome sequence."

The reference genome is a yardstick or standard for comparison for studies of human genetics.

The human reference genome was first created in 2001 and is updated every couple of years, Kidd explained. It's a mosaic of DNA sequences derived from several individuals. He went on to say that about 80 percent of the reference genome came from eight people. One of them actually accounts for more than 66 percent of the total.

Along with their collaborators at Agilent, the team designed ways to examine these newly identified sequences in a panel of people representing populations from around the world. The researchers found that, in some cases, the number of copies of these sequences varied from person to person.

The fact that a person can have one or more copies, or no copy at all, of a particular DNA sequence may account for why these sequences were missing from the reference genome. The researchers also found that some of these sequences were common or rare in different populations, depending on from which part of the globe their ancestors originated.

"Each segment of the reference genome is from a single person, and reflects the genome of that individual. If the donor sample was missing a sequence that many other people have, that sequence would not be represented in the reference genome." Kidd explained. "That is why some of the positions on the reference genome represent rare structural configurations or entirely omit sequences found in the majority of people." Kidd said that the study published in Nature Methods used information from nine individuals, representing various world populations, to search for and fill in some of the missing pieces.

By looking at genomes from seven kinds of animals, the researchers were also able to show that some of the newly identified DNA sequences appear to have been conserved during the evolution of mammals and man. The animals whose genomes were studied were chimpanzee, Bornean orangutan, Rhesus monkey, house mouse, Norway rat, dog, and horse.

"Some of the sequences were present in several different species, but were absent from the reference genome," Kidd said. "Some of the sequences present in several mammals actually correspond to sites of variations in humans some people have retained a particular sequence, and others have lost it."

The researchers also developed a method to accurately genotype many of the newly found DNA sequences and created a way to look at variations in the number of copies of these sequences, thereby opening up regions of the human genome previously inaccessible to such studies.

"Scientists can now begin trying to understand the functional importance of these sequences and their variations," Kidd said.

The 1,000 Genomes Project (an international effort to fully sequence the genomes of a thousand anonymous individuals) and other genome studies are amassing massive amounts of data on DNA sequences that are then mapped to the reference genome, he added. Any study, he continued, that improves the completeness and quality of the reference genome assembly will thereby benefit these projects and lead to a fuller picture of the extent of human genomic variation.

The findings are published as "Characterization of missing human genome sequences and copy-number polymorphic insertions," in Nature Methods.


'/>"/>

Contact: Leila Gray
leilag@u.washington.edu
206-685-0381
University of Washington
Source:Eurekalert

Related biology news :

1. New bioanalytical methods have potential for investigative and screening applications
2. A forensic analysis of Hurricane Katrinas impact: methods and findings
3. Biologists merge methods, results from different disciplines to find new meaning in old data
4. New management methods extend blackberry season
5. Widely used virus assay shown unreliable when compared to other methods
6. Magnetic nanotags spot cancer in mice earlier than methods now in clinical use
7. Company Granted Patent on Apparatus, Systems, and Methods for Gathering and Processing Wireless Biometric and Biomechanical Data
8. Cold Spring Harbor Protocols features RNA analysis methods
9. Researcher says microchannels could advance tissue engineering methods
10. Methods for gene transfer in stem cells featured in Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
11. Researchers develop brain-reading methods
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:5/20/2016)... 2016  VoiceIt is excited to announce its ... By working together, VoiceIt and VoicePass will ... VoicePass take slightly different approaches to voice biometrics, ... and usability. ... partnership. "This marketing and technology partnership ...
(Date:5/3/2016)... 3, 2016  Neurotechnology, a provider of high-precision ... Automated Biometric Identification System (ABIS) , a complete ... MegaMatcher ABIS can process multiple complex biometric transactions ... of fingerprint, face or iris biometrics. It leverages ... and MegaMatcher Accelerator , which have been ...
(Date:4/26/2016)... , April 27, 2016 ... the  "Global Multi-modal Biometrics Market 2016-2020"  report to ... ) , The analysts forecast the ... CAGR of 15.49% during the period 2016-2020.  ... number of sectors such as the healthcare, BFSI, ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:5/25/2016)... Calif. (PRWEB) , ... May 25, 2016 , ... Lajollacooks4u ... area and has consistently been rated one of its top attractions. Fortune 500 ... globe to participate in a unique and intimate team-building experience. , Each event kicks ...
(Date:5/25/2016)... ... May 25, 2016 , ... Founder ... double board-certified in surgery and surgery of the hand by the National Board ... stranger to going above and beyond in his pursuit of providing the most ...
(Date:5/25/2016)... ... May 25, 2016 , ... WEDI, the nation’s leading authority on the use ... W. Stellar has been named by the WEDI Board of Directors as WEDI’s president ... executive leader with more than 35 years of experience in healthcare, association management and ...
(Date:5/24/2016)... Worcester, Mass. (PRWEB) , ... May 24, 2016 ... ... including heart attacks, diabetes, and traumatic injuries, will be accelerated by research at ... skin cells into engines of wound healing and tissue regeneration. , The novel ...
Breaking Biology Technology: