Navigation Links
New genomic study provides a glimpse of how whales could adapt to ocean
Date:11/24/2013

November 24, 2013, Shenzhen, China - In a paper published in Nature Genetics, researchers from Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, Korea Genome Research Foundation, BGI, and other institutes presented the first high-depth minke whale genome and their new findings on how whales successfully adapted to ocean environment. The data yielded in this study will contribute to future studies of marine mammal diseases, conservation and evolution.

Whales roam throughout all of the world's oceans, living in the water but breathing air like humans. At the top of the food chain, whales are vital to the health of the marine environment, whereas 7 out of the 13 great whale species are endangered or vulnerable. The minke whale is the most abundant baleen whale. Its wide distribution makes it an ideal candidate for whole reference genome sequencing.

In this study, researchers conducted de novo sequencing on a minke whale with 128x average depth of coverage, and re-sequenced three minke whales, a fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus), a bottlenose dolphin, and a finless porpoise (Neophocaena phocaenoides). The yielded data may help to improve scientists' understanding of the evolutionary changes adapted to ocean environment from whole genome level.

The adaptation of whale to ocean life was notably marked by resistance to physiological stresses caused by a lack of oxygen, increased reactive oxygen species, and high salt level. In this study, researchers investigated a number of whale-specific genes that were strongly associated with stress resistance, such as the peroxiredoxin (PRDX) family, O-linked N-acetylglucosaminylation (O-GlcNAcylation). The results revealed that the gene families associated with stress-responsive proteins and anaerobic metabolism were expanded.

Perhaps the most dramatic environmental adaptation for a whale is deep diving, which can induce hypoxia. Under the hypoxic conditions, the body might produce more reactive oxygen species (ROS), harmful compounds that can damage DNA. Glutathione is a well-known antioxidant that prevents damage to important cellular components by ROS. In this study, researchers provided evidence to support that there is an increased ratio of reduced glutathione/glutathione disulfide when suffering hypoxic or oxidative stress.

Minke whales and other Mysticeti whale species grow baleen instead of teeth. It's previously reported that the genes ENAM, MMP, and AMEL might play a role in tooth enamel formation and biomineralization. This study showed that these genes may be pseudogenes with early stop codons in the baleen whales. In addition, researchers found that the gene families related to whale's body hair and sensory receptors were contracted, such as Keratin-related gene families associated with hair formation, several Hox genes that play an important role in the body plan and embryonic development.

Xuanmin Guang, project manager from BGI, said, "Minke whale is the first marine mammal that has been sequenced with such high-depth genome coverage. The genome data not only can help us know much more about the adaption mechanisms underlying minke whale, but also provides invaluable resource for marine mammal's future studies such as diseases control and prevention, species conservation,and protection."


'/>"/>

Contact: Jia Liu
liujia@genomics.cn
BGI Shenzhen
Source:Eurekalert

Related biology news :

1. Baylor, DNAnexus, Amazon Web Services collaboration enables largest-ever cloud-based analysis of genomic data
2. Coimbra Genomics and BGI join forces to conquer stomach cancer
3. New NIH-funded resource focuses on use of genomic variants in medical care
4. Georgia State researcher gets $499,209 NSF grant to advance sociogenomics
5. Genetics in Medicine publishes special issue dedicated to genomics in electronic health records
6. Mayo Clinic hosts NIH genomics director at Individualizing Medicine Conference
7. NIH program explores the use of genomic sequencing in newborn healthcare
8. Researchers develop software tool for cancer genomics
9. HSCI researchers extend human epigenomic map
10. Genomic atlas of gene switches in plants provides roadmap for crop research
11. New genomics research project to eliminate Listeria from food supply
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:12/15/2016)... Germany , December 15, 2016 ... announced an agreement with NuData Security, an award-winning ... partnership will enable clients to focus on good customer experience, ... protection regulation. ... In order to provide a one-stop fraud prevention suite, ...
(Date:12/15/2016)... , Dec. 15, 2016 Advancements ... experience, health wellness and wellbeing (HWW), and ... in three new passenger vehicles begin to ... gesture recognition, heart beat monitoring, brain wave ... facial monitoring, and pulse detection. These will ...
(Date:12/12/2016)... CLEVELAND , Dec. 12, 2016  Researchers ... commercial possibilities for graphene by combining the material ... a highly sensitive pressure detector able to sense ... of a small spider.  The ... and can be read here:  http://science.sciencemag.org/content/354/6317/1257 ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:1/18/2017)... ... ... Researchers from a new study are stating that if levels of the blood ... this indicates there is still remaining prostate cancer cells that are more likely to come ... always been an indicator of whether a man’s prostate cancer is growing or not,” ...
(Date:1/18/2017)... ... January 18, 2017 , ... BidMed, LLC, announced it will hold ... testing lab equipment from two different leading institutes. This highly specialized laboratory equipment is ... United States. This 1-day online auction will take place on BidMed’s website ...
(Date:1/18/2017)... ... 2017 , ... Thirty-six startup companies in University City and Center City have ... and Economic Development in 2016 as part of the Keystone Innovation Zone (KIZ) Tax ... Zone and represent the highest number of awards to the largest number of companies ...
(Date:1/18/2017)... 2017  HUYA Bioscience International, (HUYA), the leader in ... pharmaceutical innovations, announced today a strategic collaboration agreement ... Company (referred to as CAS Innovation). The collaboration will ... leading scientists at CAS to meet the medical needs ... the first company to have recognized China,s ...
Breaking Biology Technology: