Navigation Links
Nano vaccine for hepatitis B shows promise for third world
Date:8/12/2008

ANN ARBOR, Mich. Chronic hepatitis B infects 400 million people worldwide, many of them children. Even with three effective vaccines available, hepatitis B remains a stubborn, unrelenting health problem, especially in Africa and other developing areas. The disease and its complications cause an estimated 1 million deaths globally each year.

In many poor countries, refrigerated conditions required for the current vaccines are costly and hard to come by. It's often difficult in the field to keep needles and syringes sterile. The need to have people return for the three shots currently required also limits success.

Now, a new vaccine that avoids these drawbacks has moved a step closer to human trials. Health researchers hope it will make it possible to immunize large numbers of children and adults in Africa, Asia and South America efficiently and safely.

Scientists at the Michigan Nanotechnology Institute for Medicine and Biological Sciences at the University of Michigan report that a novel, needle-less method for getting an immunity-stimulating agent into the body has proved non-toxic and able to produce strong, sustained immune responses in animal studies. The vaccine is based on a super-fine emulsion of oil, water and surfactants placed in the nose.

The research was supported by the Grand Challenges in Global Health initiative, which is funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health, the Wellcome Trust and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. The findings appear online in the journal PLoS ONE.

The nanoemulsion represents a new delivery method for an antigen already used in existing hepatitis B vaccines to activate the body's immune defenses.

"Our results indicate that needle-free nasal immunization, using a combination of nanoemulsion and hepatitis B antigen, could be a safe and effective hepatitis B vaccine, and also provide an alternative booster method for existing vaccines," says James R. Baker, Jr., M.D., the study's senior author and director of the institute. He also is Ruth Dow Doan Professor and allergy division chief in the U-M Department of Internal Medicine.

The nanoemulsion is made up of soybean oil, alcohol, water and detergents emulsified into droplets less than 400 nanometers in diameter.

The study suggests that the new type of hepatitis B vaccine will not have rigid cold storage requirements and could require fewer administrations than current vaccines, which require three shots given over a period of six months. Protective immunity with the new vaccine required only two immunizations in animals. The vaccine also avoids the risk of spreading needle-borne infections.

The nanoemulsion vaccine also avoids the temporary pain and redness that results after people get shots with the current vaccines, in which an irritating compound, alum, is used as an adjuvant, or enhancer of a vaccine's effect. There was no local inflammation at the nasal site of administration with the new vaccine.

This finding may be significant, because one of the major concerns for nasal administration of vaccines is that they can find their way to the olfactory bulb in the brain and cause side effects, says Paul E. Makidon, D.V.M., co-first author of the study and a U-M research fellow. "Our studies, however, indicate no inflammation and no evidence of the vaccine in the olfactory bulb," he says.

Baker's team has published earlier studies affirming the promise of nasal nanoemulsions as a strategy for smallpox, influenza, anthrax and HIV vaccines. The nanoemulsion technology is patented by U-M and licensed to Ann Arbor-based NanoBio Corporation. Baker is a founder and equity holder of NanoBio.

Research details:

The research team determined effective doses of the antigen and nanoemulsion. In results obtained in mice, rats and guinea pigs, the nanoemulsion vaccine proved effective at producing three types of immunity: systemic, mucosal and cellular. Further toxicity studies in rodents and dogs showed the vaccine was safe and well-tolerated.

The vaccine was as effective as current hepatitis B vaccines in eliciting systemic protective antibodies in the blood of animals. The nanoemulsion acted as an effective adjuvant, without the need for a traditional adjuvant or inflammatory compound as in the current hepatitis B vaccines.

In addition, the nanoemulsion vaccine produced sustained cellular immunity in Th1 cells, which could make the vaccine useful in treating people with chronic hepatitis B whose own cellular immune responses are inadequate.

The animals given the nasal nanoemulsion in the study also activated a third type of immunity, mucosal immunity, which is gaining recognition among immunologists as a key first-line response to infectious agents in diseases such as hepatitis B where mucosal tissues are involved in transmission. Baker and his team found the same effect of activating mucosal immunity that was seen in their previous studies of other nanoemulsion-based vaccines.

The researchers tested whether the vaccine could remain stable and effective even if not refrigerated. They found the nanoemulsion vaccine retained its effectiveness for six months when kept at 25 degrees Celsius (77 degrees Fahrenheit), and even was stable and effective for six weeks at 40 degrees C (104 degrees F). This suggests that refrigeration will not be needed for the final distribution of the vaccine in developing countries, making it easier to vaccinate underserved people.

Current studies are focused on developing the preclinical data required to enter human trials, Baker says. The researchers hope that the first human trial can begin within a year.


'/>"/>

Contact: Anne Rueter
arueter@umich.edu
734-764-2220
University of Michigan Health System
Source:Eurekalert

Related biology news :

1. UCF professor develops vaccine to protect against black plague bioterror attack
2. Mobilizing white blood cells to the lung: New discovery could lead to an improved influenza vaccine
3. Prostate cancer vaccines more effective with hormone therapy
4. From foe to friend: Researchers use salmonella as a way to administer vaccines in the body
5. Footrot vaccine closer than ever
6. LIAI researchers discover new cellular mechanism that will significantly advance vaccine development
7. VaxInnate to discuss seasonal and pandemic flu vaccines during BIO 2008 this week
8. A protein sequence associated with Huntington’s disease may become life-saving vaccine component
9. New technology for boosting vaccine efficiency
10. New vaccine may give long-term defense against deadly bird flu and its variant forms
11. Vaccine for Ebola virus
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:4/5/2017)... , April 5, 2017 Today HYPR ... that the server component of the HYPR platform is ... providing the end-to-end security architecture that empowers biometric authentication ... HYPR has already secured over 15 million users across ... manufacturers of connected home product suites and physical access ...
(Date:3/30/2017)... ANGELES , March 30, 2017  On April ... Hack the Genome hackathon at Microsoft,s ... exciting two-day competition will focus on developing health and ... Hack the Genome is the ... been tremendous. The world,s largest companies in the genomics, ...
(Date:3/28/2017)... PUNE, India , March 28, 2017 ... (Analog, IP, Biometrics), Hardware (Camera, Monitors, Servers, Storage Devices), ... Maintenance), Vertical, and Region - Global Forecast to 2022", ... 30.37 Billion in 2016 and is projected to reach ... 15.4% between 2017 and 2022. The base year considered ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:5/24/2017)... (PRWEB) , ... May 24, 2017 , ... ... selection and implementation of CLEARAS Water Recovery’s Advanced Biological Nutrient Recovery (ABNR™) technology ... component of a $24 million plant upgrade to sustainably meet current and future ...
(Date:5/24/2017)... BOSTON , May 23, 2017 As Ebola ... with four deaths and 20 suspected cases now reported, ... via the PubMed database, showed a correlation between the 2014 ... gene Replikin counts rose sharply in 2012-13, which preceded the ... rise in the Ebola gene Replikin counts in 2014-15, which ...
(Date:5/23/2017)... Basel, Switzerland (PRWEB) , ... May 23, 2017 ... ... for R&D, celebrates this month its 20th anniversary, marking the occasion with a ... is sponsoring the meeting’s Welcome Reception and further extends an invitation to all ...
(Date:5/23/2017)... ... 2017 , ... Energetiq Technology, a world leader in high ... accommodate its rapid growth. , The renovations at the company’s headquarters in Woburn, ... areas. The expansion includes, a state-of-the-art engineering facility, and a second clean manufacturing ...
Breaking Biology Technology: