Navigation Links
NYU and UCSF researchers develop a framework for monitoring oral cancer
Date:6/10/2014

Each year, approximately 22,000 Americans are diagnosed with oral cancer. The five-year survival rate of 40% in the U.S. is one of the lowest of the major cancers, and it has not improved in the past 40 years. More people die each year in the U.S. from oral cancer than from melanoma, cervical, or ovarian cancer. Worldwide, the incidence of oral cancer is increasing, particularly among young people and women, with an estimated 350,000 400,000 new cases diagnosed each year.

"The major risk factors, tobacco and alcohol use, alone cannot explain the changes in incidence, because oral cancer also commonly occurs in patients without a history of tobacco or alcohol exposure," said Dr. Brian Schmidt, professor of oral and maxillofacial surgery and director of the Bluestone Center for Clinical Research at the NYU College of Dentistry (NYUCD).

Changes in the microbial community are commonly associated with dental diseases such as periodontal disease, which is most likely a poly-microbial disease characterized by outgrowth of certain pathologic organisms, and chronic periodontitis has been reported to be a risk factor for oral premalignant lesions and cancers.

"We know that other cancers, including gallbladder, colon, lung and prostate, have been associated with particular bacterial infections, so we hypothesized that shifts in the composition of the normal oral cavity microbiome could be promoters or causes of oral cancer," said Dr. Albertson.

Drs. Schmidt and Albertson and their team profiled cancers and anatomically matched contralateral normal tissue from the same patient by sequencing 16S rDNA hypervariable region amplicons. The team's findings, "Changes in abundance of oral microbiota associated with oral cancer," published on-line in the journal PLOS ONE (June 2014), begin to develop a framework for exploiting the oral microbiome for monitoring oral cancer development, progression and recurrence.

In cancer samples from both a discovery (n=5) and a subsequent confirmation cohort (n=10), abundance of Firmicutes (especially Streptococcus) and Actinobacteria (especially Rothia) was significantly decreased relative to contralateral normal samples from the same patient. Significant decreases in abundance of these phyla were observed for pre-cancers, but not when comparing samples from contralateral sites (tongue and floor of mouth) from healthy individuals. Using differences in abundance of the genera Actinomyces, Rothia, Streptococcus and Fusobacterium, the team was able to separate most cancer samples from pre-cancer and normal samples.

"The oral cavity offers a relatively unique opportunity to screen at risk individuals for (oral) cancer, because the lesions can be seen, and as we found, the shift in the microbiome of the cancer and pre‑cancer lesions compared to anatomically matched clinically normal tissue from the same individual can be detected in non‑invasively collected swab samples." said Dr. Schmidt.

Non‑invasively sampling the microbiome of oral lesions and corresponding normal tissue opens the possibility to not only detect cancer‑associated changes at one time point, but the relative stability of the adult oral microbiome also offers the opportunity to monitor shifts in bacterial communities over time.

"Here we observed changes in the microbiome, which, in future larger studies, may be confirmed as a potential biomarker of oral cancers or pre‑cancers, and may even have utility to discriminate patients with lymph node metastases," notes Dr. Albertson. "In addition, there are other challenges in clinical management of oral cancers that would benefit from better diagnostic tools."

Oral cancer patients are also at risk of second primary cancers and recurrences. The microbiome may provide signatures that can be used as a biomarker for monitoring field changes associated with the high rate of second primary oral cancers and recurrences. The team also notes the possibility of medically modulating the oral microbiome for treatment of oral pre-cancers and damaged fields (field cancerization).


'/>"/>

Contact: Christopher James
christopher.james@nyu.edu
212-998-6876
New York University
Source:Eurekalert

Related biology news :

1. LSTM researchers identify the complex mechanisms controlling changes in snake venom
2. CU researchers explain mechanism that helps viruses spread
3. UNC researchers pinpoint new role for enzyme in DNA repair, kidney cancer
4. EcoHealth 2014 connects researchers addressing impacts of global change on health and ecosystems
5. Iowa State, Ames Lab researchers find the mechanism that forms cell-to-cell catch bonds
6. Race could be a factor in head and neck cancer survival rates, MU researchers find
7. Researchers shut down a SARS cloaking system; findings could lead to SARS, MERS vaccines
8. Palmer amaranth threatens Midwest farm economy, researchers report
9. Online network connects honeybee keepers and researchers
10. Leptin also influences brain cells that control appetite, Yale researchers find
11. For the first time in the lab, researchers see stem cells take key step toward development
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:4/5/2017)... Allen Institute for Cell Science today announces the launch ... dynamic digital window into the human cell. The website ... deep learning to create predictive models of cell organization, ... suite of powerful tools. The Allen Cell Explorer will ... resources created and shared by the Allen Institute for ...
(Date:4/4/2017)... , April 4, 2017   EyeLock LLC ... announced that the United States Patent and Trademark Office ... broadly covers the linking of an iris image with ... transaction) and represents the company,s 45 th issued ... patent is very timely given the multi-modal biometric capabilities ...
(Date:3/30/2017)... -- The research team of The Hong Kong Polytechnic ... by adopting ground breaking 3D fingerprint minutiae recovery and matching technology, ... accuracy for use in identification, crime investigation, immigration control, security of ... ... A research team led by Dr ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:6/20/2017)...  Kibow Biotech Inc., a pioneer in developing "Enteric ... a new patent covering a unique method for preventing ... and Trademark Office on May 23 rd 2017. ... Bio award in 2014 in San Diego, ... to chronic disease. Renadylâ„¢, the first and only dietary ...
(Date:6/20/2017)... ... ... Do More with OHAUS , With the launch of the new laboratory equipment ... to extending its expertise across the entire laboratory to a range of life science ... for its customers to 'Do More' in the lab. , Efficiency and Safety ...
(Date:6/19/2017)... ... June 19, 2017 , ... As Vice President, Product Services, ... training, implementation, support, and client process and SOP development. , Mr. Guinter brings ... leadership roles for service providers and top-tier pharmaceuticals, and as an independent consultant ...
(Date:6/19/2017)... of Prussia, PA (PRWEB) , ... June 19, 2017 , ... ... life sciences companies for over 50 years. One of the biggest challenges faced by ... Joining the firm’s regulatory affairs services team is Kati Abraham , who is ...
Breaking Biology Technology: