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Mysterious catalyst explained
Date:4/30/2013

From methanol to formaldehyde - this reaction is the starting point for the synthesis of many everyday plastics. Using catalysts made of gold particles, formaldehyde could be produced without the environmentally hazardous waste generated in conventional methods. Just how the mysterious gold catalyst works has been found out by theoretical and experimental researchers at the Ruhr-Universitt Bochum in a cooperation project. In the international edition of the journal "Angewandte Chemie" they report in detail on what happens on the gold surface during the chemical reaction.

"Gold should not really be suitable as a catalyst."

"That nanoparticles of gold actually selectively transform methanol into formaldehyde is remarkable", says Prof. Dr. Martin Muhler of the Laboratory of Industrial Chemistry at the RUB. "As a stable precious metal, gold should not really be suitable as a catalyst." However, gold particles of a few nanometres in size, anchored to a titanium dioxide surface, fulfil their purpose. You only need oxygen to set the reaction in motion, and the only waste product is water. How this is achieved is examined by Muhler's team together with the groups of Prof. Dr. Dominik Marx of the Chair of Theoretical Chemistry and Dr. Yuemin Wang of the Department of Physical Chemistry I.

Oxygen binds at the interface between gold and titanium dioxide

The chemists identified the active site of the catalyst, i.e. the point at which the oxygen and methanol bind and are converted to water and formaldehyde. Elaborate calculations by Dr. Matteo Farnesi Camellone showed that oxygen binds at the interface between titanium dioxide and gold particles. Since titanium dioxide is a semiconductor, and thus electrically conductive, a charge exchange between oxygen, gold particles and titanium dioxide is possible here. Oxygen vacancies in the titanium dioxide further favour this charge transfer. Electrons transitionally transfer from
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Contact: Dominik Marx
dominik.marx@theochem.rub.de
49-234-322-8083
Ruhr-University Bochum
Source:Eurekalert

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