Navigation Links
Movement without muscles
Date:5/12/2011

This release is available in German.

All animals move cheetahs faster, snails more slowly. Muscle contractions are the basis of all movements, at least according to general opinion. But there are animal groups, that don't have any muscles at all, as they branched off from the evolutionary path before muscle cells evolved. However these animal groups, for instance the sea sponges, are not immovable. Sponges are able to contract without muscles. These contractions were already known to sponge divers in ancient Greece, as Aristotele described in 350 BC.

A group of scientists headed by associate professor Dr. Michael Nickel of Friedrich Schiller University Jena (Germany) is looking into movement without muscles. The scientists from the Institute of Systematic Zoology and Evolutionary Biology are mostly interested in the evolutionary aspect, especially in the question: Which evolutionary forerunners did the muscle cells derive from?

In a new study which will be published in the Journal of Experimental Biology (Band 214, doi: 10.1242/jeb.049148) on 15 May 2011, the evolutionary biologists are giving new answers to the question: Which cells in the sponges are contracting? In this paper the researchers are relying on the 3dimensional (3D) images, which they created with synchrotron radiation-based X-ray microtomography. Thus, the Jena scientists in co-operation with the Helmholtz-Zentrum Gesthacht at the Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron Hamburg could compare and visualise the 3D structure of contracted and expanded sponges.

"A key feature of our approach is the use of 3D data for measuring the volume and surface of our sponges," says Nickel. "Although the 3D volumetric analysis is widely known and used in the technical sciences, it has rarely been used in zoology in spite of its enormous information potential." Thus, Nickel's team was able to show that the inner and outer surfaces and therefore the epithelial cells, so-called pinacozytes, cause the strong body contractions of the sponges. So finally, the Jena scientists could also settle a hundred year old debate about the cause of cellular contractions. Until now far spindle-shaped cells in the tissue of sponges as well as epithelial cells have been thought to be possible 'candidates' but now the Jena scientists could identify the true initiator of the contractions.

The new findings of the researchers from Jena University make new approaches about the evolutionary development of musculature possible. "The early evolution of muscles has not been fully understood so far. According to current scientific knowledge muscle cells seem to have surfaced from nowhere", Nickel says. "But surely there must have been evolutionary predecessor systems, that have been unknown until now." The sponge epithelial cells are now moving to the forefront in the evolutionary biologists' further research into the context of this. "There is a lot of evidence that the sponge epithelial cells and the muscle cells of all the other animals are going back to a common contractile cellular predecessor." In future this will be analysed by international co-operations, by also using genome and gene expression related data.


'/>"/>

Contact: Axel Burchardt
presse@uni-jena.de
49-364-193-1031
Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena
Source:Eurekalert  

Related biology news :

1. Paleozoic sediment curve provides new tool for tracking sea-floor sediment movements
2. Scientists identify a molecule that coordinates the movement of cells
3. Metastatic movements in 3-D
4. Genetic evidence for avian influenza movement from Asia to North America via wild birds
5. Cell movements totally modular, Stanford study shows
6. New movement models tested at the Smithsonian in Panama
7. Caltech researchers get first look at how groups of cells coordinate their movements
8. Effects of maternal exercise on fetal breathing movements
9. Effects of maternal exercise on fetal breathing movements
10. Resilin springs simplify the control of crustacean limb movements
11. Protein regulates movement of mitochondria in brain cells
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
Related Image:
Movement without muscles
(Date:4/11/2017)... Florida , April 11, 2017 ... a security technology company, announces the appointment of independent Directors ... Bendheim to its Board of Directors, furthering the company,s ... ... of NXT-ID, we look forward to their guidance and benefiting ...
(Date:4/4/2017)... 4, 2017   EyeLock LLC , a leader ... United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) has issued ... linking of an iris image with a face image ... the company,s 45 th issued patent. ... timely given the multi-modal biometric capabilities that have recently ...
(Date:3/29/2017)... 2017  higi, the health IT company that operates ... America , today announced a Series B investment ... EveryMove. The new investment and acquisition accelerates higi,s strategy ... transform population health activities through the collection and workflow ... higi collects and secures data today on behalf of ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:10/12/2017)... ... October 12, 2017 , ... ... of a complex biological network, a depiction of a system of linkages and ... Dmitry Korkin, PhD, associate professor of computer science at Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) ...
(Date:10/12/2017)... ... October 12, 2017 , ... ... pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries to improve patient outcomes and quality of life, will ... analytical testing are being attributed to new regulatory requirements for all new drug ...
(Date:10/11/2017)... (PRWEB) , ... October 11, 2017 , ... ComplianceOnline’s Medical ... place on 7th and 8th June 2018 in San Francisco, CA. The Summit brings ... well as several distinguished CEOs, board directors and government officials from around the world ...
(Date:10/11/2017)... ... October 11, 2017 , ... A new study ... in frozen and fresh in vitro fertilization (IVF) transfer cycles. The ... IVF success. , After comparing the results from the fresh and frozen transfer ...
Breaking Biology Technology: