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Mistaken point, Sanctuary of Zeus, catastrophic outburst floods, shocked sand grains
Date:2/20/2014

posited, topics that have been hotly debated for over 100 years. Current models widely assume that hematite in BIFs was derived directly from the primary precipitation of iron oxides, thereby implying that part of the water column contained dissolved oxygen prior to the appearance of atmospheric oxygen ~2.32 billion years ago. Our results from a classic type-section of 2.5-billion-year-old BIF provide evidence that hematite is not "primary" but formed by the replacement of other iron-bearing minerals after burial, challenging existing models. We argue that hematite growth was caused by large-scale infiltration of surface-derived fluids carrying dissolved oxygen immediately after the Great Oxidation Event. A secondary origin for hematite raises the possibility that the primary precipitates were iron-rich clays rather than iron oxides, and also precludes the use of hematite in BIF to infer the composition of the ancient ocean and to constrain biological processes.


Latest Permian paleosols from Wapadsberg Pass, South Africa: Implications for Changhsingian climate
Robert A. Gastaldo et al., Department of Geology, Colby College, Waterville, Maine 04901, USA. Posted online ahead of print on 13 Feb. 2014; http://dx.doi.org/10.1130/B30887.1.

Atmospheric carbon dioxide in the latest Permian, prior to the largest mass extinction in Earth's history nearly 251 million years ago, has been suggested to have ranged in concentration from 4x to 12x that of the modern world. Today, atmospheric pCO2 is close to 400 parts per million (ppm). Ancient soils (paleosols) are the most common depositional environment in the Karoo Basin of South Africa, where rocks that transition across the mass extinction event are reported to be exposed. One boundary section outcrops at Wapadsberg Pass in the Eastern Cape Province. In this study by Robert Gastaldo and colleagues, several of the ancient so
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Contact: Kea Giles
kgiles@geosociety.org
Geological Society of America
Source:Eurekalert

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