Navigation Links
Microscopic dust particles found in underground railways may pose health risk
Date:4/24/2013

New research from the University of Southampton has found that working or travelling on an underground railway for a sustained period of time could have health implications.

Previously published work suggests that working in environments such as steel mills or welding plants, which are rich in airborne metals, like iron, copper and nickel, can have damaging effects on health. However, little research has been done on the effects of working in an underground railway environment a similarly metal-rich environment and results of studies that have been conducted are often inconclusive.

New research published in Environmental Science and Technology shows that the small dust particles in the air in an underground railway is quite different to the dust that you breathe in every day and that could have health implications.

Matt Loxham, PhD student at the University of Southampton, explains: "We studied the ultrafine dust (or particulate matter) found in an underground station in Europe. Typically, ultrafine dust is composed of inert matter that does not pose much of a risk in terms of its chemical composition. However, in the underground station we studied, the ultrafine dust was at least as rich in metals as the larger dust particles and therefore, taken together with their increased surface area to volume ratio, it is of potential significance in understanding the risks of working and travelling in the underground. These tiny dust particles have the potential to penetrate the lungs and the body more easily, posing a risk to someone's health."

While coarse dust is generally deposited in the conducting airways of the body, for example nasal passages and bronchi; and the fine dust generally can reach the bronchioles (smaller airways), it is almost exclusively the ultrafine dust which is able to reach the deepest areas of the lungs, into the alveoli, where oxygen enters the blood and waste gases leave, to be exhaled. There is evidence that this ultrafine dust may be able to evade the protective barrier lining the airways (the epithelium), and enter underlying tissue and the circulation, meaning that the toxicity of ultrafine particles may not be limited to the airways but may involve the cardiovascular system, liver, brain, and kidneys.

Mr Loxham adds: "Underground rail travel is used by great numbers of people in large cities all over the world, for example, almost 1.2 billion journeys are made per year on the London Underground. The high level of mechanical activity in underground railways, along with very high temperatures is key in the generation of this metal-rich dust, and the number of people likely to be exposed means that more studies into the effects of particulate matter in the underground railway environment are needed, as well as examining how the levels of dust and duration of exposure might translate to effects on health."

The Southampton team, which included the Geochemistry Group at the National Oceanography Centre, Southampton and the Inhalation Toxicology Group at the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) in Bilthoven, initially collected airborne dust from a mainline underground station underneath an airport in Europe. The metal content of the dust was analysed and a detailed elemental profile was established for each dust sample. These profiles were then compared to profiles from other dusts analysed at the same time, for example dust from wood-burning stoves and a heavily-trafficked road tunnel, showing that underground particles were very rich in metals, especially iron and copper. The shapes of individual particles were examined and gave clues as to how the particles were generated. The team then showed that the dust was capable of generating reactive molecules which are fundamental to their toxic effects, and that this was dependent on the metal content of the particles and, importantly, occurred to a greater extent as the size of the individual particles decreased. Further work is now being performed to examine the effects of underground dust on airway cells in more detail and the potential mechanisms by which cells may be able to protect themselves.


'/>"/>

Contact: Becky Attwood
r.attwood@soton.ac.uk
44-023-805-95457
University of Southampton
Source:Eurekalert

Related biology news :

1. Cell phone camera photographs microscopic cell samples
2. Improved X-ray microscopic imaging
3. Microscopic packets of stem cell factors could be key to preventing lung disease in babies
4. Project MICREAgents: Self-assembling smart microscopic reagents to pioneer pourable electronics
5. Long-term exposure to fine particles of traffic pollution increases risk of heart disease
6. Ultrafine particles raise concerns about improved cookstoves
7. Transmission routes of spreading protein particles
8. Trackable drug-filled nanoparticles -- a potential weapon against cancer
9. X-rays reveal uptake of nanoparticles by soya bean crops
10. Achilles heel: Popular drug-carrying nanoparticles get trapped in bloodstream
11. Nanoparticles reach new peaks
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:12/16/2016)... NEW YORK , Dec. 16, 2016 The global ... reach USD 12.14 billion by 2021 from USD 5.31 billion in ... ... market is mainly driven by technological advancements in medical devices, launch ... devices, rising preference for wireless connectivity among healthcare providers, and increasing ...
(Date:12/15/2016)... 2016   WaferGen Bio-systems, Inc. (NASDAQ: ... announced today that on December 13, 2016, it received ... Nasdaq Stock Market LLC which acknowledged that, as of ... common stock had been at $1.00 or greater for ... with Listing Rule 5550(a)(2) of the Nasdaq Stock Market. ...
(Date:12/15/2016)... Dec. 15, 2016 Advancements in ... health wellness and wellbeing (HWW), and security ... three new passenger vehicles begin to feature ... recognition, heart beat monitoring, brain wave monitoring, ... monitoring, and pulse detection. These will be ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:1/18/2017)... ... , ... Executive search firm Slone Partners proudly supports the ... advancement of the clinical trials segment. Hosted in Miami, this conference brings together ... management. , As executive talent specialists in the industries central to clinical ...
(Date:1/18/2017)... ... January 18, 2017 , ... ... more E&L expertise. Within Albany Molecular Research, Inc. (AMRI), the scientific staff dedicated ... year and is planned for further growth in 2017. Extractable & Leachable evaluations ...
(Date:1/18/2017)... ... January 18, 2017 , ... ... today announced that it has submitted a 510(k) to the FDA, requesting clearance ... MYOLYN’s patent-pending functional electrical stimulation (FES) technology. , The submission marks a ...
(Date:1/18/2017)... ... January 18, 2017 , ... ... CHI SCOPE Summit for Clinical Ops Executives (Hyatt Regency Miami, January 24-26). DrugDev ... examine vital clinical research issues such as trial performance metrics, patient enrollment diversity, ...
Breaking Biology Technology: