Johns Hopkins researchers have used a small synthetic molecule to stimulate cells to move and change shape, bypassing the cells' usual way of sensing and responding to their environment. The experiment pioneers a new tool for studying cell movement, a phenomenon involved in everything from development to immunity to the spread of cancer.
"We were able to use synthetic molecules small enough to slip inside the cell and activate a chemical reaction controlling cell movement, bypassing most of the steps that usually lead up to this reaction," says Andre Levchenko, Ph.D., a professor at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine's Institute for Cell Engineering, whose lab collaborated with that of Takanari Inoue, also from the school of medicine, on the study.
"As a result, we came up with a new model to describe one of the more fundamental and important cellular processes and a better understanding of cell movements critical for cancer progression and immune response." A report on the study was published Nov. 26 on the website of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Like bacteria wiggling through a drop of pond water, many types of human cells move too, including fibroblasts, which patrol the skin and make repairs; immune cells, which rush to the site of infections; and nerve cells, which must travel great distances during development, Levchenko says. Similarly, in order to metastasize or spread, a tumor's cells must break off and migrate to a new part of the body.
Because of its role in cancer and immunity, these cellular dances are a hot area of research at present, Levchenko says. However, it is difficult to study the natural process for stimulating movement, in which signaling proteins bind to receptor molecules on the surface of the cell, setting off a complex chain reaction that ultimately propels the cell in a certain direction. In addition to the problem of complexity of the molecular inte
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Johns Hopkins Medicine