Navigation Links
MicroRNA cocktail helps turn skin cells into stem cells

LA JOLLA, Calif., February 1, 2011 Stem cells are ideal tools to understand disease and develop new treatments; however, they can be difficult to obtain in necessary quantities. In particular, generating induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be an arduous task because reprogramming differentiated adult skin cells into iPS cells requires many steps and the efficiency is very low researchers might end up with only a few iPS cells even if they started with a million skin cells. A team at Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute (Sanford-Burnham) set out to improve this process. In a paper published February 1 in The EMBO Journal, the team identified several specific microRNAs (miRNAs) that are important during reprogramming and exploited them to make the transition from skin cell to iPS cell more efficient.

"We identified several molecular barriers early in the reprogramming process and figured out how to remove them using miRNA," said Tariq Rana, Ph.D., director of the RNA Biology program at Sanford-Burnham and senior author of the study. "This is significant because it will enhance our ability to use iPS cells to model diseases in the laboratory and search for new therapies."

"Our study not only presents new mechanistic insights about the role of non-coding RNAs during somatic cell reprogramming but also provides proof of principle using microRNAs as great enhancers for iPS cell generation," added Zhonghan Li, graduate student and first author of the study.

MiRNAs are small strands of genetic material that may play a major role in many diseases by gumming up protein production. In this study, Dr. Rana and his colleagues observed that three groups of miRNAs, including two known individually as miR-93 and miR-106b, are activated as part of a defense mechanism that occurs when cells are stressed by the standard skin cell reprogramming process. Digging deeper, they determined that miR-93 and miR-106b target two proteins called Tgfbr2 and p21, which slow up the path to iPS cells by halting the cell cycle the cell's process of duplicating its DNA and dividing into two identical "daughter" cells and promoting cell death.

Not only does this finding reveal more about the genetic underpinnings of iPS cell formation, but the researchers took advantage of this new information to speed up the process. When they added extra miR-93 and miR-106b to skin cells, Tgfbr2 and p21 were blocked, more cells survived, and iPS cells were more readily obtained.

"In some respects, this work may be regarded as a landmark contribution to the field of stem cell biology in general and cellular reprogramming in particular," said Evan Y. Snyder, M.D., Ph.D., director of Sanford-Burnham's Stem Cells and Regenerative Biology program. "Up until now, cellular differentiation and de-differentiation has focused principally on the expression of genes; this work indicates that the strategic non-expression of genes may be equally important. The work has demonstrated that miRNAs do function in the reprogramming process and that the generation of iPSCs can be greatly enhanced by modulating miRNA action. In addition to helping us generate better tools for the stem cell field, such findings inevitably facilitate our understanding of normal and abnormal stem cell behavior during development and in disease states."


Contact: Josh Baxt
Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute

Related biology news :

1. MicroRNA suppresses prostate cancer stem cells and metastasis
2. MicroRNAs dictate the Epstein-Barr virus elaborate waiting game, cancer formation
3. Newly identified RNA sequence is key in microRNA processing
4. Red blood cells have a tiny but effective protector -- microRNA
5. Study of microRNA helps NIH scientists unlock secrets of immune cells
6. MicroRNA network study implicates rewired interactions in cancer
7. Pitt researchers discover big role for microRNA in lethal lung fibrosis
8. Penn biologists determine microRNA activity is suppressed in mouse ovum
9. Scientists use microRNAs to track evolutionary history for first time
10. MicroRNA in human saliva may help diagnose oral cancer
11. MicroRNAs help control HIV life cycle
Post Your Comments:
(Date:6/27/2016)... Research and Markets has announced the addition ... to their offering. The report ... to grow at a CAGR of 12.28% during the period 2016-2020. ... in-depth market analysis with inputs from industry experts. The report covers ... The report also includes a discussion of the key vendors operating ...
(Date:6/22/2016)... , June 22, 2016  The American College of Medical ... Show Executive Magazine as one of the fastest-growing trade ... 25-27 at the Bellagio in Las Vegas ... highest percentage of growth in each of the following categories: ... companies and number of attendees. The 2015 ACMG Annual Meeting ...
(Date:6/22/2016)... LOS ANGELES , June 22, 2016 ... of identity management and verification solutions, has ... cutting edge software solutions for Visitor Management, ... ® provides products that add functional ... The partnership provides corporations and venues with ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:6/23/2016)... ... June 23, 2016 , ... Charm Sciences, Inc. ... test has received AOAC Research Institute approval 061601. , “This is another AOAC-RI ... stated Bob Salter, Vice President of Regulatory and Industrial Affairs. “The Peel Plate ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... ... , ... STACS DNA Inc., the sample tracking software company, today announced that ... joined STACS DNA as a Field Application Specialist. , “I am thrilled that ... of STACS DNA. “In further expanding our capacity as a scientific integrator, Hays brings ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... , June 23, 2016 On ... session at 4,833.32, down 0.22%; the Dow Jones Industrial Average ... 500 closed at 2,085.45, down 0.17%. has initiated coverage ... INFI ), Nektar Therapeutics (NASDAQ: NKTR ), Aralez ... Inc. (NASDAQ: BIND ). Learn more about these ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... 23, 2016 adds ... to its pharmaceuticals section with historic and forecast ... much more. Complete report on the ... profiling 15 companies and supported with 261 tables ... . The Global Cell Culture ...
Breaking Biology Technology: