is necessary to the characterization of active volcanoes, with obvious implications for environmental and climatic impact, estimation of magma-production rate, long-term hazard assessments, and forecasting of future eruptions. Several methods have been proposed that mainly include the integrations of various deposit-thinning relationships and the inversion of field observations using computational models. Regardless of their strong dependence on tephra-deposit exposure, empirical integrations of deposit-thinning trends still represent the most widely adopted strategy due to their practical and fast application. The choice of best-fitting trends (e.g., exponential and power-law thinning on semi-log plots) has been the subject of lively debate because they are all characterized by various advantages and disadvantages. C. Bonadonna of the University of Geneva and A. Costa of the University of Reading propose a new empirical method based on the Weibull distribution, which shows a better agreement with observed data, reconciling the debate on the use of the exponential versus power-law methods. Nonetheless, Bonadonna and Costa also show that all empirical methods used to derive erupted volume based on integration of deposit thinning strongly depend on the available data and are affected by various degrees of uncertainties. Application of various empirical and analytical methods can help to assess the associated uncertainties.
Spatter-dike reveals subterranean magma diversions: Consequences for small multivent basaltic eruptions
N.S. Lefebvre et al., Dept. of Geology, University of Otago, P.O. Box 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand. Posted online 19 Mar. 2012; doi: 10.1130/G32794.1.
The most common volcanoes on the surface of Earth, small-volume, short-lived basaltic volcanoes, offer substantial opportunities for learning how magma behaves in the critical transition from coherent magma in dikes to pyroclastic dispersions. Spatter-dikePage: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Related biology news :1
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