Navigation Links
McMaster study unveils lifeline for 'antibiotic of last resort'

Hamilton, ON (April 9, 2010) A new study led by the scientific director of the Michael G. DeGroote Institute for Infectious Disease Research has uncovered for the first time how bacteria recognize and develop resistance to a powerful antibiotic used to treat superbug infections.

Gerry Wright, a professor in the Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences at McMaster University in collaboration with colleagues at the John Innes Centre in Norwich, and the University of Cambridge in the UK, have identified the specific mechanism that triggers resistance to vancomycin.

The discovery reveals new understanding about what is happening at the molecular level in vancomycin resistance. It also represents an essential first step in developing new antibiotics that can evade the sensing mechanism of bacteria and overcome resistance.

The research, funded in part by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the Canada Research Chairs program, will be published online in the high-impact journal Nature Chemical Biology on April 11, 2010.

"Vancomycin is the antibiotic of last resort and is only given when all other treatments fail," said Wright, who holds the Canada Research Chair in Molecular Studies of Antibiotics and an endowed research Chair in Infection and Anti-Infective Research.

"For years it was thought that resistance would be slow to emerge since vancomycin works in an unusual way. But with the widespread use of the drug to treat infections caused by the hospital superbug MRSA, it has become a serious clinical problem."

MRSA is the short-form for methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus, a bacterial infection that is highly resistant to some antibiotics. MRSA bacteria are responsible for a large percentage of hospital-acquired staph infections, but may also be acquired in the community.

Vancomycin is used to treat enterococcal infections that develop in patients following abdominal surgery. Enterococcal bacteria first developed resistance to vancomycin in 1986 and the first case of vancomycin-resistant MRSA (VMRSA) was reported in 2002.

For 20 years, scientists around the world have debated whether bacteria sense the drug itself to trigger resistance or whether they sense the impact it has on the cell wall of bacteria.

Most antibiotics work by inhibiting an enzyme but vancomycin binds to cell wall building blocks, causing a weakness in the structure of the cell wall so the cell bursts and dies.

Some scientists believed that bacteria detect the cell wall degradation to trigger resistance. Others argued that bacteria detect the presence of the drug directly.

Wright and his team studied the vancomycin-resistance mechanism in the harmless soil bacteria Streptomyces coelicolor.

The scientists showed that bacteria detect vancomycin itself. They also conducted preliminary experiments that suggest the same mechanism exists in disease causing bacteria.

"We have finally cracked the alarm system used by bacteria, and hopefully new antibiotics can be developed that don't set it off," said Mark Buttner, a study collaborator and senior scientist at the John Innes Centre.

Marc Ouellette, scientific director of the Institute of Infection and Immunity at the Canadian Institutes for Health Research (CIHR), said the research findings shed new light on the antibiotic resistance issue.

"Thousands of Canadians die every year from antibiotic-resistant infections," Ouellette said. "This issue has long been a priority of the CIHR and this exciting work expands our understanding of how bacteria develop resistance to antibiotics. It lays the groundwork for developing new therapies to prevent and treat antibiotic-resistant infections."


Contact: Susan Emigh
McMaster University

Related biology news :

1. New research network at McMaster aims to build a better eye
2. McMaster researchers discover new mode of how diseases evolve
3. McMaster University engineering professor receives Humboldt Research Award
4. FSU marine ecologist wins grant to study endangered sawfish
5. Pitt-led international study identifies human enzyme that breaks down potentially toxic nanomaterials, opens door to novel drug delivery
6. Pitt-led study identifies human enzyme that breaks down potentially toxic nanomaterials
7. BUSPH study links rheumatoid arthritis to vitamin D deficiency
8. 4,000-year study supports use of prescribed burns in Southern Appalachians
9. New study shows rising water temperatures in US streams and rivers
10. MSU leads global effort to study link between people, planet
11. Peregrine reports new study from Duke shows anti-HIV potential of targeting PS on cells
Post Your Comments:
(Date:5/3/2016)... Lithuania , May 3, 2016  Neurotechnology, ... released the MegaMatcher Automated Biometric Identification System ... of large-scale multi-biometric projects. MegaMatcher ABIS can process ... accuracy using any combination of fingerprint, face or ... MegaMatcher SDK and MegaMatcher Accelerator ...
(Date:4/26/2016)... , April 27, 2016 ... "Global Multi-modal Biometrics Market 2016-2020"  report to their ... , The analysts forecast the global ... of 15.49% during the period 2016-2020.  ... of sectors such as the healthcare, BFSI, transportation, ...
(Date:4/14/2016)... April 14, 2016 BioCatch ... Detection, today announced the appointment of Eyal Goldwerger ... role. Goldwerger,s leadership appointment comes at a ... of the deployment of its platform at several of ... technology, which discerns unique cognitive and physiological factors, is ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:6/23/2016)... 2016  The Biodesign Challenge (BDC), a university competition ... harness living systems and biotechnology, announced its winning teams ... New York City . The ... projects at MoMA,s Celeste Bartos Theater during the daylong ... senior curator of architecture and design, and Suzanne ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... ... June 23, 2016 , ... STACS DNA Inc., the sample tracking software company, ... Crime Laboratory, has joined STACS DNA as a Field Application Specialist. , “I ... President and COO of STACS DNA. “In further expanding our capacity as a scientific ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... Calif. , June 23, 2016  Blueprint Bio, ... biological discoveries to the medical community, has closed its ... Matthew Nunez . "We have received ... with the capital we need to meet our current ... essentially provide us the runway to complete validation on ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... ... June 23, 2016 , ... ... at the Pennsylvania Convention Center and will showcase its product’s latest features from ... also be presenting a scientific poster on Disrupting Clinical Trials in The Cloud ...
Breaking Biology Technology: