Navigation Links
Maternal stress hormones and maternal smoking increase daughter's risk of nicotine dependence
Date:1/9/2014

Philadelphia, PA, January 9, 2014 Tobacco smoking by pregnant women has long been viewed as a public health risk because of smoking's adverse effects on the development of a fetus.

Smoking during pregnancy is linked to numerous negative outcomes, including low birth weight, sudden infant death syndrome, and increased risk for attention deficit disorder, conduct disorder, and nicotine use in offspring. Despite this extensive literature, it is estimated that 13%-30% of women in the United States continue to smoke while pregnant.

Now, a new 40-year longitudinal study, published in Biological Psychiatry, provides strong evidence that prenatal exposure to maternal stress hormones predicts nicotine dependence later in life but only for daughters. It also confirms previous research that babies born to moms who smoked when pregnant have an increased risk of nicotine addiction in adulthood.

"While maternal smoking during pregnancy has been shown to be an independent risk factor for nicotine dependence, we didn't really know which pathways or mechanisms were responsible. Most prior research involving biological mechanisms had been conducted in animals not humans," said Dr. Laura Stroud, first author on this study and a researcher with the Centers for Behavioral and Preventive Medicine at The Miriam Hospital in Providence, RI.

"Our study suggests that maternal smoking and high stress hormones represent a 'double-hit' in terms of increasing an offspring's risk for nicotine addiction as an adult. Because mothers who smoke are often more stressed and living in adverse conditions these findings represent a major public health concern."

To conduct the study, Stroud and her colleagues used data from a large, national, long-term project that began in 1959 and enrolled over 50,000 pregnant women. The offspring of those women were ultimately followed by researchers for 40 years.

For this particular project, 1,086 mothers participated, where their hormone levels (cortisol and testosterone) were measured during pregnancy and their smoking status was recorded. Their children, 649 of whom were daughters and 437 of whom were sons, were interviewed as adults and their smoking status was also recorded.

The findings revealed that in female but not male offspring, elevated prenatal cortisol exposure and exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy were associated with increased rates of nicotine dependence as adults. No links were found between elevated prenatal testosterone exposure and adult nicotine dependence. There were also no findings among male offspring.

"Our findings highlight the particular vulnerability of daughters to long-term adverse outcomes following maternal stress and smoking during pregnancy. We don't yet know why this is, but possible mechanisms include sex differences in stress hormone regulation in the placenta and adaptation to prenatal environmental exposures," added Stroud. "Also, cortisol and nicotine may affect developing male and female brains differently. Furthermore, if daughters of smoking mothers are more likely to grow up nicotine dependent, the result is dangerous cycle of intergenerational transmission of nicotine addiction."

"These new data may help us to focus our attention on individuals at greatest risk for later smoking," said Dr. John Krystal, Editor of Biological Psychiatry. "It is interesting that female, but not male, offspring seemed to be at greatest risk. Sex differences in the vulnerability to smoking are important and merit further study."


'/>"/>

Contact: Rhiannon Bugno
Biol.Psych@utsouthwestern.edu
214-648-0880
Elsevier
Source:Eurekalert

Related biology news :

1. High levels of maternal care has life-long impact on vulnerability to stress
2. Maternal mood disorder and newborn neurobehavior
3. A maternal junk food diet alters development of opioid pathway in the offspring
4. Study associates excess maternal iodine supplementation with congenital hypothyroidism in newborns
5. New study associates excess maternal iodine supplementation with congenital hypothyroidism
6. Contraceptive use averts 272,000 maternal deaths worldwide
7. Good news: Fewer maternal and child deaths
8. Identification of differential proteins in maternal serum with Down syndrome
9. Nociceptin: Natures balm for the stressed brain
10. Volatile ecosystems, a natural wind tunnel, volcanic lightning, and stress & strain on Venus
11. Study shows moms may pass effects of stress to offspring via vaginal bacteria and placenta
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:6/27/2016)... Research and Markets has announced the addition of the ... The report forecasts the biometrics ... a CAGR of 12.28% during the period 2016-2020. ... with inputs from industry experts. The report covers the market landscape ... includes a discussion of the key vendors operating in this market. ...
(Date:6/22/2016)... June 22, 2016 On Monday, the Department ... industry to share solutions for the Biometric Exit Program. ... and Border Protection (CBP), explains that CBP intends to ... the United States , in order ... defeat imposters. Logo - http://photos.prnewswire.com/prnh/20160622/382209LOGO ...
(Date:6/16/2016)... , June 16, 2016 ... size is expected to reach USD 1.83 billion ... Grand View Research, Inc. Technological proliferation and increasing ... applications are expected to drive the market growth. ... , The development of advanced multimodal ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:12/7/2016)... ... December 07, 2016 , ... ... announced that it has become a Wonderware Certified System Integrator Partner. Huffman ... by Schneider Electric Software. , “The System Integrator Partner certification gives customers confidence ...
(Date:12/7/2016)... Dec. 7, 2016 /PRNewswire/ - Zenith Capital Corp. ("Zenith" or the ... be presented at the Company,s Annual and Special Meeting. ... will take place on Thursday, December 15, 2016 at ... (Room EC1040), 4825 Mount Royal Gate SW, ... notice of meeting and management information circular, containing the matters ...
(Date:12/7/2016)... India , December 8, 2016 The report "Acrylic Processing ... & Construction, Packaging, Automotive, Consumer Goods) - Global Forecast to 2026", published by ... projected to reach USD 1,173.6 Million by 2026, registering an of CAGR of ... ... MarketsandMarkets Logo ...
(Date:12/7/2016)... 7, 2016  Muse bio, a privately-held company leading ... that Dr. Kevin Ness has been appointed ... Directors. Kevin succeeds Muse bio,s founding ... Chief Science Officer as well as remains Slade Professor, ... BioDesign Center at the RAS Energy Institute at the ...
Breaking Biology Technology: