Navigation Links
Manipulation of a specific neural circuit buried in complicated brain networks in primates
Date:6/17/2012

The collaborative research team led by Professor Tadashi ISA, Project Assistant Professor Masaharu KINOSHITA from The National Institute for Physiological Sciences, The National Institutes of Natural Sciences and Fukushima Medical University and Kyoto University, developed "the double viral vector transfection technique" which can deliver genes to a specific neural circuit by combining two new kinds of gene transfer vectors. With this method, they found that "indirect pathways", which were suspected to have been left behind when the direct connection from the brain to motor neurons (which control muscles) was established in the course of evolution, actually plays an important role in the highly developed dexterous hand movements. This study was supported by the Strategic Research Program for Brain Sciences by the MEXT of Japan. This research result will be published in Nature (London) (June 17th, advance online publication).

It is said that the higher primates including human beings accomplished explosive evolution by having acquired the ability to move hands skillfully. It has been thought that this ability to move individual fingers is a result of the evolution of the direct connection from the cerebrocortical motor area to motor neurons of the spinal cord which control the muscles. On the other hand, in lower animals with clumsy hands, such as cats or rats, the cortical motor area is connected to the motor neurons, only through interneurons of the spinal cord. Such "indirect pathway"remains in us, primates, without us fully understanding its functions. Is this "phylogenetically old circuit" still in operation? Or maybe suppressed since it is obstructive? The conclusion was not attached to this argument.

The collaborative research team led by Professor Tadashi ISA, Project Assistant Professor Masaharu KINOSHITA from The National Institute for Physiological Sciences, The National Institutes of Natural Sciences and Fukushima Medical University and Kyoto University developed "the double viral vector transfection technique"which can deliver genes to a specific neural circuit by combining two new kinds of gene transfer vectors.

With this method, they succeeded in the selective and reversible suppression of the propriospinal neurons (spinal interneurons mediating the indirect connection from cortical motor area to spinal motor neurons)

The results revealed that "indirect pathways" play an important role in dexterous hand movements and finally a longtime debate has come to a close.

The key component of this discovery was"the double viral vector transfection technique"in which one vector is retrogradely transported from the terminal zone back to the neuronal cell bodies and the other is transfected at the location of their cell bodies. The expression of the target gene is regulated only in the cells with double transfection by the two vectors. Using this technique, they succeeded in the suppression of the propriospinal neuron selectively and reversibly.

Such an operation was possible in mice in which the inheritable genetic manipulation of germline cells were possible, but impossible in primates until now.

Using this method, further development of gene therapy targeted to a specific neural circuit can be expected.

Professor Tadashi ISA says "this newly developed double viral vector transfection technique can be applied to the gene therapy of the human central nervous system, as we are the same higher primates.

And this is the discovery which reverses the general idea that the spinal cord is only a reflex pathway, but also plays a pivotal role in integrating the complex neural signals which enable dexterous movements."


'/>"/>

Contact: Tadashi Isa
tisa@nips.ac.jp
81-564-557-761
National Institute for Physiological Sciences
Source:Eurekalert

Related biology news :

1. Beyond the microscope: Identifying specific cancers using molecular analysis
2. Cracking the Neural Code: Third Annual Aspen Brain Forum
3. Neural stem cell transplants for spinal cord injury maximized by combined, complimentary therapies
4. Scientists find neural stem cell regulator
5. The first chemical circuit developed
6. Brain circuitry is different for women with anorexia and obesity
7. Study by UC Santa Barbara psychologists reveals how brain performs motor chunking tasks
8. Purdue professor to speak before Congress about nanotechnology in brain treatment research
9. Songbirds learning hub in brain offers insight into motor control
10. Dartmouth researchers are learning how exercise affects the brain
11. Suspicion resides in 2 regions of the brain
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:6/2/2016)... The Department of Transport Management (DOTM) of ... Dollar project, for the , Supply and Delivery ... IT Infrastructure , to Decatur ... Identity Management Solutions. Numerous renowned international vendors participated in the ... was selected for the most compliant and innovative solution. The ...
(Date:6/1/2016)... Favorable Government Initiatives Coupled With ... Identification to Boost Global Biometrics System Market Through 2021  ... report, " Global Biometrics Market By Type, By ... 2011 - 2021", the global biometrics market is projected ... of growing security concerns across various end use sectors ...
(Date:5/16/2016)... YORK , May 16, 2016   EyeLock ... solutions, today announced the opening of an IoT Center ... to strengthen and expand the development of embedded iris ... an unprecedented level of convenience and security with unmatched ... authenticate one,s identity aside from DNA. EyeLock,s platform uses ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:6/23/2016)... ... June 23, 2016 , ... Supplyframe, the Industry ... Supplyframe Design Lab . Located in Pasadena, Calif., the Design Lab’s mission ... hardware projects are designed, built and brought to market. , The Design Lab ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... Ky. , June 23, 2016 ... two Phase 1 clinical trials of its complement ... placebo-controlled, single and multiple ascending dose studies designed ... pharmacodynamics (PD) of subcutaneous injection in healthy adult ... subcutaneously (SC) either as a single dose (ranging ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... 2016 On Wednesday, June 22, 2016, ... 0.22%; the Dow Jones Industrial Average edged 0.27% lower to ... down 0.17%. Stock-Callers.com has initiated coverage on the following equities: ... (NASDAQ: NKTR ), Aralez Pharmaceuticals Inc. (NASDAQ: ... BIND ). Learn more about these stocks by accessing their ...
(Date:6/23/2016)... ... June 23, 2016 , ... ... line of intelligent tools designed, tuned and optimized exclusively for Okuma CNC machining ... Chicago. The result of a collaboration among several companies with expertise in toolholding, ...
Breaking Biology Technology: