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Mafic melts, methane seeps, 2 million waves, foreign magma, and the invisible hand
Date:4/11/2012

g of that foreign magma shows that it came from an independent magmatic system some 10-15 km away, yet it was erupted at Taupo volcano from the same vent as the early Oruanui magma. Eruption was triggered by a rifting-related event that unclamped faults above the magma chambers and diverted the foreign magma laterally to collide with the evacuating Oruanui magma. Relaxation of stresses associated with the rifting event then led to premature shutdown of explosive activity for some months, despite only a trivial volume of magma being released. Renewed rifting then restarted the eruption, again with the two magmas. Tectonics played a crucial role in controlling the onset and vigor of this large eruption and, because of its invisibility, the role of tectonics may currently be under-recognized in many other eruptions.


Origin of contrasting Devonian supradetachment basin types in the Scandinavian Caledonides

Vegard V. Vetti and Haakon Fossen, Dept. of Earth Science, University of Bergen, Postboks 7803, 5020 Bergen, Norway. Posted online ahead of print 10 April 2012; doi: 10.1130/G32512.1.

Extensional detachments (faults) in collapsing orogens tend to generate strongly asymmetric sedimentary basins with beds dipping against the tectonic transport direction, in fault contact with the low-angle detachment. A series of such basins occur in the SW Norway Caledonides atop a W-dipping detachment zone. One of these Devonian basins shows consistently E-dipping beds that rest unconformably on the substrate over a lateral distance of more than 11 km. Restoring everything by rigid rotation gives a very steep and ~10 km tall paleoslope, which is clearly unrealistic. Instead, Vegard V. Vetti and Haakon Fossen explain these peculiar unconformable relations by deposition in a hanging-wall ramp basin that opens due to ~10-km-tall ramp in the underlying detachment. Forward modeling of this situation shows that the model is realistic. The authors s
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Contact: Christa Stratton
cstratton@geosociety.org
Geological Society of America
Source:Eurekalert

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