Navigation Links
MIT researchers reveal how the brain keeps eyes on the prize
Date:8/4/2013

n structure known to be important in reinforcement learning. They teamed up with Paul Phillips of the University of Washington, who has developed a technology called fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) in which tiny, implanted, carbon-fiber electrodes allow continuous measurements of dopamine concentration based on its electrochemical fingerprint.

"We adapted the FSCV method so that we could measure dopamine at up to four different sites in the brain simultaneously, as animals moved freely through the maze," explains first author Mark Howe, a former graduate student with Graybiel who is now a postdoc in the Department of Neurobiology at Northwestern University. "Each probe measures the concentration of extracellular dopamine within a tiny volume of brain tissue, and probably reflects the activity of thousands of nerve terminals."

Gradual increase in dopamine

From previous work, the researchers expected that they might see pulses of dopamine released at different times in the trial, "but in fact we found something much more surprising," Graybiel says: The level of dopamine increased steadily throughout each trial, peaking as the animal approached its goal as if in anticipation of a reward.

The rats' behavior varied from trial to trial some runs were faster than others, and sometimes the animals would stop briefly but the dopamine signal did not vary with running speed or trial duration. Nor did it depend on the probability of getting a reward, something that had been suggested by previous studies.

"Instead, the dopamine signal seems to reflect how far away the rat is from its goal," Graybiel explains. "The closer it gets, the stronger the signal becomes." The researchers also found that the size of the signal was related to the size of the expected reward: When rats were trained to anticipate a larger gulp of chocolate milk, the dopamine signal rose more steeply to a higher final concentration.

In some t
'/>"/>

Contact: Kimberly Allen
allenkc@mit.edu
617-253-2702
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Source:Eurekalert

Page: 1 2 3

Related biology news :

1. Mount Sinai researchers develop first successful laboratory model for studying hepatitis C
2. Montana State University researchers highlight bears use of Banff highway crossings
3. HudsonAlpha and UAB researchers work to identify optimal treatments for ER+ breast cancer
4. UPCI researchers target cell sleep to lower chances of cancer recurrence
5. U-M researchers land $2M grant to cooperate with nature on growing algae for energy
6. UT Southwestern researchers identify novel mechanism that helps stomach bug cause illness
7. Researchers uncover cellular mechanisms for attention in the brain
8. Notre Dame researchers develop system that uses a big data approach to personalized healthcare
9. U of M researchers unveil nations first porcine virus rapid detection test
10. Researchers reveal the clearest new pictures of immune cells
11. Researchers describe potential for MERS coronavirus to spread internationally
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:4/21/2015)... High crime rate, increasing ... access control systems market in Saudi Arabia ... published report by TechSci Research " Saudi Arabia Access Control ... systems market in Saudi Arabia ... control systems market in the Kingdom is growing at ...
(Date:4/20/2015)... , April 20, 2015 Huntington Memorial Hospital ... to implant a new miniaturized, wireless monitoring sensor to ... the first and only FDA-approved heart failure monitoring device ... when used by physicians to manage heart failure. ... is implanted in the pulmonary artery (PA) during a ...
(Date:4/20/2015)... The announcement comes as demand for fire ... Ireland,s foremost records management company, has ... an impressive track record of clients within the first 12 ... management sector in Dubai . As a ... employ a further eight staff members at its Irish headquarters. ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):Saudi Arabia Access Control Systems Market to Touch USD1.2 Billion by 2020 Says TechSci Research 2Saudi Arabia Access Control Systems Market to Touch USD1.2 Billion by 2020 Says TechSci Research 3Huntington Memorial Hospital Becomes First in the San Gabriel Valley to Offer Patients a New Heart Failure Monitoring Solution 2Huntington Memorial Hospital Becomes First in the San Gabriel Valley to Offer Patients a New Heart Failure Monitoring Solution 3Glenbeigh Records Management Wins Contract With Dubai Islamic Bank 2Glenbeigh Records Management Wins Contract With Dubai Islamic Bank 3
... study finds a strong, consistent correlation between adult diabetes ... other risk factors like obesity and ethnicity, report researchers ... at exposure levels below the current EPA safety limit. ... Diabetes Care , is among the first large-scale ...
... available in Chinese on EurekAlert! Chinese . ... law of thermodynamics is a big hit with the beret-wearing ... of a closed systems to become increasingly disordered if no ... depressing, "things fall apart" sort-of-law that would seem to confirm ...
... address before the Kavli Science Forum: 2010 in Oslo, Dr. John ... provided insight into why climate change is a priority to the ... mitigate, and adapt to, what he termed the effects of "global ... time alone - any of us - as individual nations," he ...
Cached Biology News:National study finds strong link between diabetes and air pollution 2Tiny generators turn waste heat into power 2John P. Holdren addresses climate change, stressing need for international cooperation 2
(Date:4/24/2015)... Seoul Semiconductor announced the expansion of its ... lighting market. In recent months, there have ... emerging markets such as Russia, South America, and ... such as streetlight and area lighting, tunnel lighting, ... in 2005 the Acrich technology from Seoul Semiconductor ...
(Date:4/23/2015)... Athena San Diego, an organization that accelerates ... San Diego’s technology and life science sectors, will announce ... their Gala on April 30, 2015 from 5-9pm at ... http://athenasd.org/events/ , The Pinnacle Awards recognize individuals and ... of fostering networking, risk taking and diversity of thought, ...
(Date:4/23/2015)... , April 23, 2015 /CNW/ - A new ... packaging award from North America,s ... Competitor Comparison won Silver in the "Sustainability, service" ... The Brandcheck "Competitor Comparison" is a service ... North American and Global peers. This benchmarking process ...
(Date:4/23/2015)... Six startups from Russia traveled to ... part of the U.S.-Russia Innovation Corridor (USRIC) program. ... startups to participate in the program since the ... University of Maryland (UMD) signed a Memorandum of ... in the biomedical industry in 2013. , Supported ...
Breaking Biology Technology:Acrich Technology from Seoul Semiconductor Adopted in Installations Worldwide 2Athena Pinnacle Awards to Honor Executives, Corporations and Educators Working to Promote Women Leaders 2U.S.-Russian Innovation Corridor Program Connects Visiting Russian Startups to U.S. Experts 2U.S.-Russian Innovation Corridor Program Connects Visiting Russian Startups to U.S. Experts 3U.S.-Russian Innovation Corridor Program Connects Visiting Russian Startups to U.S. Experts 4
... a drug research and development company currently developing a ... headed by women selected to present at the Springboard ... Madison, Wisconsin, and New York City. More than ... participate. , "The opportunity to present our science, discuss ...
... 10 Regado Biosciences, a privately held company leading the development ... MBA, Senior Vice President and Chief Business Officer, will be presenting ... Pennsylvania. Ms. McDonald,s presentation will be ... November 16 and will include ...
... iSirona ... ... provider of data automation solutions for healthcare providers, today announced the appointment of John Cooper ... founder, who will continue to serve as the company,s CEO and retains a seat on ...
Cached Biology Technology:Curemark Presents at Springboard Enterprises Life Sciences Forum 2Regado Biosciences to Present at the Ninth Annual Joint Symposium of BioNJ and Pennsylvania Bio on November 16, 2009 2iSirona Selects New Chairman of the Board 2
... breakthrough in accurate, small-volume bulk dispensing. Dispensing precise ... 1 has unique advantages not found in any ... needs re-calibration as do other 1mL dispensers. ... Display , Graphical Row Selection , 96-,384- and ...
... Rabbit polyclonal to Rad51 ( Abpromise ... Antigen: Synthetic peptide: ... N terminal amino acids 15-29 of ... Gene ID: 5888 ...
... High performance agitation and temperature control for ... four wells independently and is suitable for ... L working volume. Its temperature ranges from ... Each well is equipped with an individual ...
... and reports the data from any one of ... chart recorder. The final data is sent from ... selection is automatic for Systolic, Mean, Heart Rate ... user is always in the position to override ...
Biology Products: