Navigation Links
MIT researchers reveal how the brain keeps eyes on the prize
Date:8/4/2013

n structure known to be important in reinforcement learning. They teamed up with Paul Phillips of the University of Washington, who has developed a technology called fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) in which tiny, implanted, carbon-fiber electrodes allow continuous measurements of dopamine concentration based on its electrochemical fingerprint.

"We adapted the FSCV method so that we could measure dopamine at up to four different sites in the brain simultaneously, as animals moved freely through the maze," explains first author Mark Howe, a former graduate student with Graybiel who is now a postdoc in the Department of Neurobiology at Northwestern University. "Each probe measures the concentration of extracellular dopamine within a tiny volume of brain tissue, and probably reflects the activity of thousands of nerve terminals."

Gradual increase in dopamine

From previous work, the researchers expected that they might see pulses of dopamine released at different times in the trial, "but in fact we found something much more surprising," Graybiel says: The level of dopamine increased steadily throughout each trial, peaking as the animal approached its goal as if in anticipation of a reward.

The rats' behavior varied from trial to trial some runs were faster than others, and sometimes the animals would stop briefly but the dopamine signal did not vary with running speed or trial duration. Nor did it depend on the probability of getting a reward, something that had been suggested by previous studies.

"Instead, the dopamine signal seems to reflect how far away the rat is from its goal," Graybiel explains. "The closer it gets, the stronger the signal becomes." The researchers also found that the size of the signal was related to the size of the expected reward: When rats were trained to anticipate a larger gulp of chocolate milk, the dopamine signal rose more steeply to a higher final concentration.

In some t
'/>"/>

Contact: Kimberly Allen
allenkc@mit.edu
617-253-2702
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Source:Eurekalert

Page: 1 2 3

Related biology news :

1. Mount Sinai researchers develop first successful laboratory model for studying hepatitis C
2. Montana State University researchers highlight bears use of Banff highway crossings
3. HudsonAlpha and UAB researchers work to identify optimal treatments for ER+ breast cancer
4. UPCI researchers target cell sleep to lower chances of cancer recurrence
5. U-M researchers land $2M grant to cooperate with nature on growing algae for energy
6. UT Southwestern researchers identify novel mechanism that helps stomach bug cause illness
7. Researchers uncover cellular mechanisms for attention in the brain
8. Notre Dame researchers develop system that uses a big data approach to personalized healthcare
9. U of M researchers unveil nations first porcine virus rapid detection test
10. Researchers reveal the clearest new pictures of immune cells
11. Researchers describe potential for MERS coronavirus to spread internationally
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:11/18/2014)... -- The Parenteral Drug Association (PDA) today confirmed that seven ... at least seven more will participate in the upcoming 2014 ... in Washington D.C. , Dec. 2-4. ... from the regulatory agencies in the United States ... effort to help advance the use of metrics in the ...
(Date:11/15/2014)... we may still be a few years away from the ... gain instant access to all that ailed his patients, mobile ... for monitoring and measuring our health are cropping up in ... tad Orwellian to some, but a new survey suggests that ... into their healthcare regime. These are some of ...
(Date:11/11/2014)... 2014  Forensicon, Inc., a Chicago ... announce the promotion of Yaniv Schiff from ... In Schiff,s new role as Director, he will lead ... forensics examiners and provide leadership within the company,s digital ... http://photos.prnewswire.com/prnh/20141110/157719 Schiff joined Forensicon in ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):FDA's Janet Woodcock, EMA's Emer Cooke Headline PDA Quality Metrics Conference 2Americans May Be Ready for a Brave New World of Healthcare 2Americans May Be Ready for a Brave New World of Healthcare 3Americans May Be Ready for a Brave New World of Healthcare 4Yaniv Schiff Promoted to Director of Digital Forensics at Forensicon, Inc. 2
... SAN DIEGO, Aug. 7 Sony is making the ... DSC-T77 digital,cameras with "intelligent" shooting functions., The 10-megapixel ... 5/8,of an inch with a 3-inch, 16 x 9 ... technology, Smile Shutter(TM) and,face detection technologies with child and ...
... University of Florida College of Pharmacy researchers have discovered ... that inhibits cancer cell growth in laboratory tests, a ... drugs to better battle the disease. The UF-patented ... coral reefs. Researchers, who described results from early studies ...
... Aug. 7, 2008 Despite some improvements to lower ... to do a better job controlling overall blood lipid ... Program study. Researchers found that 37 percent of ... system had reached recommended levels of LDL-C (bad cholesterol), ...
Cached Biology News:Sony Cyber-shot Cameras Get Smarter 2Sony Cyber-shot Cameras Get Smarter 3Researchers find cancer-inhibiting compound under the sea 2Researchers find cancer-inhibiting compound under the sea 3People with heart disease still have trouble controlling blood lipid levels 2
(Date:11/26/2014)... (PRWEB) November 26, 2014 Publicis Healthcare ... today announced the organization has won a total of ... Digitas Health LifeBrands was honored with a Silver Award ... agencies received eight Awards of Excellence. , The ... pharmaceutical advertising and promotion. The Awards provide a forum ...
(Date:11/26/2014)... 26, 2014 2014 Deep Research ... professional and in-depth research report on the Ammonium ... its definition, classification, application, and industry chain structure ... the international market analysis, including China’s domestic market ... Europe, Asia, China, Japan etc. regions) industry analysis ...
(Date:11/26/2014)... 2014 In keeping with the holiday ... bevy of last-minute Thanksgiving savings. The company is offering ... all product lines this holiday weekend as well as ... Friday, and Cyber Monday are right around the corner, ... both loyal customers and those looking to explore their ...
(Date:11/26/2014)... , Nov. 26, 2014 Space is one ... of space requires astronauts to maintain consistently high levels ... and prevent potential errors and accidents. Despite the importance ... about how cognition is affected by prolonged spaceflight, and ... Now, Penn Medicine researchers are poised to help the ...
Breaking Biology Technology:Publicis Healthcare Wins 20 Rx Club Awards 2Publicis Healthcare Wins 20 Rx Club Awards 3Ammonium Bifluoride Market International Analysis of Manufacturing, Technology & Trends Now at ReportsnReports.com 2Ammonium Bifluoride Market International Analysis of Manufacturing, Technology & Trends Now at ReportsnReports.com 3DNA Spectrum Offers Last Minute Thanksgiving Coupons 2DNA Spectrum Offers Last Minute Thanksgiving Coupons 3Penn Medicine Team Develops Cognitive Test Battery to Assess the Impact of Long Duration Spaceflights on Astronauts' Brain Function 2Penn Medicine Team Develops Cognitive Test Battery to Assess the Impact of Long Duration Spaceflights on Astronauts' Brain Function 3Penn Medicine Team Develops Cognitive Test Battery to Assess the Impact of Long Duration Spaceflights on Astronauts' Brain Function 4
... ... sales success need to understand Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) that gauge the potential for ... to generate more business and income in a new article at www.YouCanSell.com . ... Albuquerque, NM ...
... ... In the India, CJP is all set to hold ... 20-24, 2010. The JatrophaWorld Training Programme 2010-- the Most Authoritative platform ... R&D progress, and application technologies, including utilization of Jatropha Crude Oil ...
... can operate efficiently and last a long time is a ... to the assembly line. The precious metal platinum has been ... downsides: It is expensive, and it breaks down over time ... Brown University report a promising advance. They have created a ...
Cached Biology Technology:Use Key Performance Indicators to Generate Sales Success Says Expert Lenann McGookey Gardner 2JatrophaWorld Training Programme Slated for India September 20-24, 2010 2JatrophaWorld Training Programme Slated for India September 20-24, 2010 3JatrophaWorld Training Programme Slated for India September 20-24, 2010 4Brown chemists report promising advance in fuel-cell technology 2
...
...
... to Decorin ( Abpromise for ... Antigen: Synthetic peptide: IGPEVPDDRDFEPS conjugated ... 6-19 of Human Decorin (fragment 36-49 ... II). Entrez GeneID: ...
...
Biology Products: