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Low-cost nanosheet catalyst discovered to split hydrogen from water
Date:5/11/2012

UPTON, NY Hydrogen gas offers one of the most promising sustainable energy alternatives to limited fossil fuels. But traditional methods of producing pure hydrogen face significant challenges in unlocking its full potential, either by releasing harmful carbon dioxide into the atmosphere or requiring rare and expensive chemical elements such as platinum.

Now, scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Brookhaven National Laboratory have developed a new electrocatalyst that addresses one of these problems by generating hydrogen gas from water cleanly and with much more affordable materials. The novel form of catalytic nickel-molybdenum-nitride described in a paper published online May 8, 2012 in the journal Angewandte Chemie International Edition surprised scientists with its high-performing nanosheet structure, introducing a new model for effective hydrogen catalysis.

"We wanted to design an optimal catalyst with high activity and low costs that could generate hydrogen as a high-density, clean energy source," said Brookhaven Lab chemist Kotaro Sasaki, who first conceived the idea for this research. "We discovered this exciting compound that actually outperformed our expectations."

Goldilocks chemistry

Water provides an ideal source of pure hydrogen abundant and free of harmful greenhouse gas byproducts. The electrolysis of water, or splitting water (H2O) into oxygen (O2) and hydrogen (H2), requires external electricity and an efficient catalyst to break chemical bonds while shifting around protons and electrons. To justify the effort, the amount of energy put into the reaction must be as small as possible while still exceeding the minimum required by thermodynamics, a figure associated with what is called overpotential.

For a catalyst to facilitate an efficient reaction, it must combine high durability, high catalytic activity, and high surface area. The strength of an element's bond to hydr
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Contact: Justin Eure
jeure@bnl.gov
631-344-2347
DOE/Brookhaven National Laboratory
Source:Eurekalert

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