The animals mirrored the scent-marking behavior of their partners. "When one member of a pair started sniffing and scent-marking more often, their mate did too," said Lydia Greene, a research associate in the Department of Evolutionary Anthropology who conducted the study as a Duke undergraduate.
The couples without offspring that spend more time on scent-marking and investigating each other's odors may be in a 'getting-to-know-you' period, the researchers say.
"If two animals have never reproduced, the male doesn't necessarily know what the female smells like when she's in heat, because they've never gone through this before. They might need to scent mark a lot more to figure out when it's time to mate," Greene said.
Sifaka couples with kids spent less time scent-marking and investigating each other's odors, but their odor profiles were more similar than those of couples without kids, possibly due to the exchange of odor-producing bacteria during mating, grooming, or other forms of physical contact.
Surprisingly, the number of years a couple had lived together made no difference to their mating success or the similarity of their scents. "Some of the sifaka couples had been living together for quite a while, but hadn't managed to produce an infant, whereas others had been living together for a really short period of time and had already successfully reproduced," Greene said.
Figuring out what the sifakas' chemical messages mean will take more time. The scent secretions of other lemur species contain hundreds of odor compounds that help the animals distinguish males from females, mark the boundaries of their territories, even tell when a female is fertile or sniff out the best mates. By sharing similar scent signals, sifaka couples could be jointly defending their territories, or advertising their bond to other lemurs in the gr
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