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Johns Hopkins scientists identify a key to body's use of free calcium
Date:1/23/2014

Scientists at Johns Hopkins report they have figured out a key step in how "free" calcium the kind not contained in bones is managed in the body, a finding that could aid in the development of new treatments for a variety of neurological disorders that include Parkinson's disease.

Appearing online this week in Nature Chemical Biology, the researchers describe their use of tiny "lights" and chemical "leashes" to unveil how calcium is controlled.

Electrical signals carried by free-floating calcium ions are "wildly important to keeping the second-by-second functions of the body going," says David Yue, M.D., Ph.D., professor of biomedical engineering and neuroscience at The Johns Hopkins University.

Yue, who led the research team of graduate students Philemon Yang and Manu Ben Johny, explains that large proteins called calcium channels are the gatekeepers that determine when calcium enters cells. Embedded in cell membranes, these channels open and shut to regulate calcium flow into the cell. When calcium goes into cells, it sets off a cascade of vital activity, but just the right amount of calcium must enter otherwise, problems arise.

To achieve this balance, two chemical regulators bind to calcium channels as a brake and accelerator for calcium entry. Calmodulin, one type of calcium channel-binding protein, stops calcium from flowing through, while other proteins, known as calcium- Yue, who led the research team of graduate students Philemon Yang and Manu Ben Johny, explains that large proteins called calcium channels are the gatekeepers that determine when calcium enters cells.

Embedded in cell membranes, these channels open and shut to regulate calcium flow into the cell. When calcium goes into cells, it sets off a cascade of vital activity, but just the right amount of calcium must enter otherwise, problems arise. To achieve this balance, two chemical regulators bind to calcium channels as a brake and acc
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Contact: Catherine Kolf
ckolf@jhmi.org
443-287-2251
Johns Hopkins Medicine
Source:Eurekalert

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