Navigation Links
Johns Hopkins researchers reshape basic understanding of cell division
Date:11/5/2010

By tracking the flow of information in a cell preparing to split, Johns Hopkins scientists have identified a protein mechanism that coordinates and regulates the dynamics of shape change necessary for division of a single cell into two daughter cells.

The protein, called 14-3-3, sits at an intersection where it integrates converging signals from within the cell and cues cell shape change and, ultimately, the splitting that allows for normal and abnormal cell growth, such as in tumors.

In a report published Nov. 9 in Current Biology, the Hopkins team links 14-3-3 directly to myosin II, a complex of motor proteins that monitors and smoothes out the shape changes to ensure accurate division.

"The discovery of this role for 14-3-3 has immediate and important medical implications because cell division already is one of the major targets of anticancer drugs," says Douglas Robinson, Ph.D., an associate professor of cell biology at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine. "This protein provides a new opportunity for tweaking the cell division system."

The new findings grew out of studies of the so-called mitotic spindle in the one-celled amoeba Dictyostelium. The spindle's job is to separate all the genetic material into two identical sets, one for each daughter cell, and coordinate cell division activities at the cell's outer membrane.

Using a painstaking chemical-genetic approach, the scientists altered the cells so that they grew only half as well as normal. They then used tools of genetic engineering to try to make the cells grow normally again.

Specifically, they used a chemical that makes the spindles fall apart, and then they searched for genes "turned on" in response to this catastrophe. Out popped 14-3-3. When they increased production of 14-3-3, they found that the chemical lost its damaging effect.

Next, they blocked 14-3-3 and noticed traits in these cells reminiscent of what happens when myosin II muscle-moving machinery is disturbed, suggesting that 14-3-3 plays a critical role in cell shape dynamics and cell division.

The amoeba has only one form of the 14-3-3 protein compared to humans, whose seven forms interact with hundreds of proteins to regulate many cellular processes. Some 14-3-3s in humans are thought to be tumor suppressors because their function is lost in tumor cells; other 14-3-3s in humans are over-productive in certain types of cancers, suggesting that they may be biomarkers for disease progression.

Ironically, division failure may put a cell on the pathway of tumor development because it results in a cell having twice as many parts and chromosomes during the next cell cycle. Such chromosomal instability may put it at risk of losing genetic material such as tumor suppressors.

Tumor cells often have alterations in their mechanical properties, Robinson says, adding that those alterations are thought to contribute to how cells can metastasize, invade and pass through different cell layers to migrate to new locations in the body.

Says Robinson: "Having studied myosin II for 13 years, it still surprised us that 14-3-3 coordinates myosin II in the critical processes of cell shape change and division."


'/>"/>

Contact: Maryalice Yakutchik
myakutc1@jhmi.edu
443-287-2251
Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions
Source:Eurekalert

Related biology news :

1. UNCs Dr. Sean McLean receives Robert Wood Johnson Foundation award
2. American Society for Microbiology honors Ryan Johnson
3. Case Western Reserve University works with Johnson & Johnson Services Inc. on research grant
4. Pancreatic Cancer Action Network-AACR Pathway to Leadership Grant awarded to Johns Hopkins Early Career investigator
5. Johns Hopkins scientists discover a controller of brain circuitry
6. JDRF announces diabetes research program with Johnson & Johnson
7. Johnson & Johnson award goes to research of the cause of brain cell damage in Parkinsons
8. Johns Hopkins scientists pull proteins tail to curtail cancer
9. Johns Hopkins researchers detect sweet cacophony while listening to cellular cross-talk
10. Hopkins team discovers sweet way to detect prediabetes
11. 2 Hopkins scientists awarded European honorary doctorates
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:12/15/2016)... , Dec. 15, 2016   WaferGen Bio-systems, ... held genomics technology company, announced today that on December ... Qualifications Department of The Nasdaq Stock Market LLC which ... bid price of WaferGen,s common stock had been at ... WaferGen has regained compliance with Listing Rule 5550(a)(2) of ...
(Date:12/15/2016)... Advancements in biometrics will radically ... wellbeing (HWW), and security of vehicles by ... vehicles begin to feature fingerprint recognition, iris ... monitoring, brain wave monitoring, stress detection, fatigue ... detection. These will be driven by built-in, ...
(Date:12/15/2016)... Dec. 14, 2016 "Increase in mobile transactions ... The mobile biometrics market is expected to grow from ... by 2022, at a CAGR of 29.3% between 2016 ... as the growing demand for smart devices, government initiatives, ... "Software component is expected to grow at a ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:1/12/2017)... ... January 12, 2017 , ... ... Vertebral Technologies, Inc., announces the successful outcome of the first lumbar fusion ... VTI (Vertebral Technologies, Inc.) has partnered with Mexico-based medical product company BioMedical ...
(Date:1/12/2017)... AURORA, Colo (PRWEB) , ... January 12, 2017 ... ... and then to targeted treatments, 26-year-old Lisa Rosendahl’s doctors gave her only a ... eLife describes a new drug combination that has stabilized Rosendahl’s disease and increased ...
(Date:1/12/2017)... The report "Direct-Fed Microbials Market by Type (Lactic Acid Bacteria and Bacillus), Livestock (Pork/Swine, Poultry, ... to 2022", published by MarketsandMarkets, the global market is estimated to be valued ... by 2022, at a CAGR of 6.96% from 2016. ... ... ...
(Date:1/11/2017)... ... January 11, 2017 , ... ... clinics in Peru studying the pathogens that cause malaria and tuberculosis. Seeing firsthand ... path of discovery. , Now, as an assistant professor of biology and biotechnology ...
Breaking Biology Technology: