Navigation Links
Intestinal bacteria produce neurotransmitter, could play role in inflammation
Date:6/17/2012

Researchers at Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children's Hospital have identified commensal bacteria in the human intestine that produce a neurotransmitter that may play a role in preventing or treating inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn's disease.

"We identified, to our knowledge, the first bifidobacterial strain, Bifidobacterium dentium, that is capable of secreting large amounts of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). This molecule is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central and enteric nervous systems," says Karina Pokusaeva, a researcher on the study and a member of the laboratory of James Versalovic.

GABA is one of the chief inhibitory neurotransmitters in the human central nervous system. It plays a role in regulating pain and some pain relieving drugs currently on the market act by targeting GABA receptors on neural cells.

Pokusaeva and her colleagues were interested in understanding the role the human microbiome might play in pain and scanned the genomes of potentially beneficial intestinal microorganisms, identified by the Human Microbiome Project, for evidence of a gene that would allow them to create GABA.

"Lab analysis of metagenomic DNA sequencing data allowed us to demonstrate that microbial glutamate decarboxylase encoding gene is very abundant in intestinal microbiota as compared to other body sites," says Pokusaeva. One of the most prolific producers of GABA was B. dentium, which appears to secrete the compound to help it survive the acid environment.

In addition to its pain modulating properties, GABA may also be capable of inhibiting inflammation. Recent studies have shown that immune cells called macrophages also possess GABA receptors. When these receptors were activated on the macrophages there was a decrease in the production of compounds responsible for inflammation.

"Our lab was curious to explore if GABA produced by intestinal human isolate B. dentium could have an effect on GABA receptors present in immune cells," says Pokusaeva. Together with their collaborators Dr. Yamada and Dr. Lacorazza they found that when the cells were exposed to secretions from the bacteria, they exhibited increased expression of the GABAA receptor in the immune cells.

While the findings are preliminary, they suggest the possibility that B. dentium and the compounds it secretes could play a role in reducing inflammation associated with inflammatory bowel diseases.

The next step, says Pokusaeva is to conduct in vitro experiments to determine if the increased GABAA expression correlates with a decrease in production of cytokines associated with inflammation. GABAA receptor signaling may also contribute to pain signaling in the gut and may somehow be involved in abdominal pain disorders.

"Our preliminary findings suggest that Bifidobacterium dentium could potentially have an inhibitory role in inflammation; however more research has to be performed to further prove our hypothesis," says Pokusaeva.


'/>"/>

Contact: Jim Sliwa
jsliwa@asmusa.org
202-942-9297
American Society for Microbiology
Source:Eurekalert

Related biology news :

1. Johns Hopkins researchers uncover genes at fault for cystic fibrosis-related intestinal obstruction
2. Leading evolutionary scientist to discuss how genome of bacteria has evolved
3. Study by UC Santa Barbara researchers suggests that bacteria communicate by touch
4. Team discovers how bacteria resist a Trojan horse antibiotic
5. From scourge to saint: E. coli bacteria becomes a factory - to make cheaper, faster pharmaceuticals
6. Bacterial shock to recapture essential phosphate
7. Disarming disease-causing bacteria
8. Study shows unified process of evolution in bacteria and sexual eukaryotes
9. Invisible helpers: How probiotic bacteria protect against inflammatory bowel diseases
10. Researchers develop rapid test strips for bacterial contamination in swimming water
11. Bacteria discovery could lead to antibiotics alternatives
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:11/17/2016)... Global Market Watch: Primarily supported by ownership types; ... Academics) market is to witness a value of US$37.1 billion ... Compounded Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 10.75% is foreseen from ... 2014-2020. North America is not way ... Europe at 9.56% respectively. Report Focus: ...
(Date:11/15/2016)... DUBLIN , Nov 15, 2016 Research ... - Global Forecast to 2021" report to their offering. ... ... reach USD 16.18 Billion by 2021 from USD 6.21 Billion in ... Growth of the bioinformatics market is driven by ...
(Date:6/22/2016)... 2016  The American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics ... as one of the fastest-growing trade shows during the ... Bellagio in Las Vegas . ... growth in each of the following categories: net square feet ... of attendees. The 2015 ACMG Annual Meeting was ranked 23 ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:12/7/2016)... ... December 07, 2016 , ... Cambrian ... for industrial facilities, today announced that one of the nation’s fastest growing craft ... novel water-energy purchase agreement (WEPA). Under the WEPA, a first for the industrial ...
(Date:12/7/2016)... ... December 07, 2016 , ... JULABO ... online shopping cart. The new website has been designed to provide the best ... allow customers to access detailed product information, read educational industry content as well ...
(Date:12/7/2016)... ... 07, 2016 , ... Kara Dwyer Dodge grew up hearing stories of the sea monster her ... Mass., found a sea turtle entangled in the lines of one of his lobster pots. ... sensation because no one could remember ever seeing one so large so close to shore. ...
(Date:12/6/2016)... /PRNewswire/ - SQI Diagnostics Inc. ("SQI" or the "Company") (TSX-V: SQD; OTCQX: ... and fiscal year ended September 30, 2016. ... , , ... diagnostics company that develops and commercializes proprietary technologies and products for ... Achieved revenues of $1.4 million more than tripling prior years revenue. ...
Breaking Biology Technology: