Navigation Links
Immune cell 'defenders' could beat invading bacteria
Date:4/3/2014

An international team of scientists has identified the precise biochemical key that wakes up the body's immune cells and sends them into action against invading bacteria and fungi.

The patented work, published in Nature today, provides the starting point to understanding our first line of defence, and what happens when it goes wrong. It will lead to new ways of diagnosing and treating inflammatory bowel disease, peptic ulcers and even TB. It could also lead to new protective vaccines.

The discovery, the result of an international collaboration between Monash University and the Universities of Melbourne, Queensland and Cork, builds on work by Australian researchers last year who proved that a group of immune cells called MAITs, which line the gut, lungs and mouth, act as defenders against bacteria. Making up to 10 per cent of T-cells, which are essential to the immune system, mucosal-associated invariant T (MAITs) initiate the immune system's action against foreign invaders when they are exposed to vitamin B2, which is made by bacteria and fungi.

Professor Jamie Rossjohn from Monash University said that access to major facilities in Melbourne played a critical role in the research.

"To get from the first observation to today's discovery required not just smart people but access to Melbourne's Bio21 Institute platforms, dozens of visits to the Australian Synchrotron, and a global research network including our Irish colleagues who provided access to mutant bacterial strains. All that coming together allowed us to beat our international competitors and secure the patent," Professor Rossjohn said.

Professor James McCluskey, Deputy Vice-Chancellor (Research) from The University of Melbourne said little was known about the role of MAITs, beyond the fact that they had an association with bacteria. This latest research narrows down the biochemical trigger for MAIT cells to a particular group of compounds. The reaction is only possible in certain bacteria and fungi, which means the diseases and microbes targeted by the body's MAITs can now be traced.

"We want to unravel the complex molecular interactions that define how we fight disease. This remarkable research collaboration shows us how to do it," Professor McCluskey said.

The research proves that humans and other mammals use but do not make riboflavin; only bacteria and fungi do, which means that MAITs are a useful guard against infection in the gut, mouth and lungs.

Researcher Dr Alexandra Corbett, from The University of Melbourne said the discovery was significant. "We have unlocked a secret that will enable our team to investigate the role that MAIT cells play in health and disease, which is exciting. However, there are major international laboratories with whom we have to compete."

Professor David Fairlie of the Institute for Molecular Bioscience at the University of Queensland said the finding may be a valuable clue to fight disease and assist with new drug developments.

"MAIT cells are a discovery so recent that they have not even made it into the textbooks. Most doctors know nothing about them. Yet they constitute about one cell in 10 of the body's T-cells and half of all the T-cells in the liver," Professor McCluskey said.

The work is also an early win for the recently announced ARC Centre of Excellence in Advanced Molecular Imaging. The Centre develops new imaging methods to visualise atomic, molecular and cellular details of how immune proteins interact and affect immune responses.


'/>"/>

Contact: Lucy Handford
lucyhandford@monash.edu
039-903-4815
Monash University
Source:Eurekalert

Related biology news :

1. Newly discovered molecule may offer hope for immune disorders and runaway inflammation
2. IRCM researchers uncover a new function for an important player in the immune response
3. Study finds that fast-moving cells in the human immune system walk in a stepwise manner
4. An inventive new way to profile immune cells in blood
5. Scientists learn how pathogens hack our immune systems to go undetected
6. Study in mice raises question: Could PTSD involve immune response to stress?
7. Vitamin A used in acne medicines may help autoimmune and transplant patients
8. Puzzling question in bacterial immune system answered
9. Immune system development linked to leukemia
10. With sinus study, Saint Louis University researchers find that harmless members of microbiome spark immune reaction
11. Study: Moderate alcohol consumption boosts bodys immune system
Post Your Comments:
*Name:
*Comment:
*Email:
(Date:4/28/2016)... BANGALORE, India , April 28, 2016 ... subsidiary of Infosys (NYSE: INFY ), and Samsung ... global partnership that will provide end customers with a ... and payment services.      (Logo: http://photos.prnewswire.com/prnh/20130122/589162 ... for financial services, but it also plays a fundamental part ...
(Date:4/26/2016)... , April 27, 2016 ... the  "Global Multi-modal Biometrics Market 2016-2020"  report to ... ) , The analysts forecast the ... CAGR of 15.49% during the period 2016-2020.  ... number of sectors such as the healthcare, BFSI, ...
(Date:4/15/2016)... Research and Markets has announced ... 2016-2020,"  report to their offering.  , ... global gait biometrics market is expected to grow ... 2016-2020. Gait analysis generates multiple variables ... to compute factors that are not or cannot ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:5/5/2016)... ... 2016 , ... American Process, Inc. (API) announced that the ... 9,322,133 and 9,322,134, to API and its affiliated companies for BioPlus® nanocellulose technology. ... compositions. In addition to these patents and U.S. Patent No. 9,187,865 awarded ...
(Date:5/4/2016)... ... 05, 2016 , ... CereScan, the nation’s leader in providing ... National Stroke Awareness Month in May. An infographic created by CereScan will ... CereScan will donate $1 up to a maximum of $3,000 through users who ...
(Date:5/4/2016)... , May 4, 2016  Bayer today announced ... compound Stivarga ® (regorafenib) tablets for the ... has met its primary endpoint of a statistically ... RESORCE, evaluated the efficacy and safety of regorafenib ... after treatment with sorafenib. The safety and tolerability ...
(Date:5/4/2016)... Kansas City, Missouri (PRWEB) , ... May 04, 2016 , ... ... President of Professional and Agricultural Sales. , Doug began his career at PBI-Gordon ... has since served in a wide variety of roles, ranging from customer service to ...
Breaking Biology Technology: