Navigation Links
Imaging biomarker predicts response to rapid antidepressant

A telltale boost of activity at the back of the brain while processing emotional information predicted whether depressed patients would respond to an experimental rapid-acting antidepressant, a National Institutes of Health study has found.

"We have discovered a potential neuroimaging biomarker that may eventually help to personalize treatment selection by revealing brain-based differences between patients," explained Maura Furey, Ph.D., of NIH's National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH).

Furey, NIMH's Carlos Zarate, M.D., and colleagues, reported on their functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study of a pre-treatment biomarker for the antidepressant response to scopolamine, Jan. 30, 2013, online in JAMA Psychiatry.

Scopolamine, better known as a treatment for motion sickness, has been under study since Furey and colleagues discovered its fast-acting antidepressant properties in 2006. Unlike ketamine, scopolamine works through the brain's acetylcholine chemical messenger system. The NIMH team's research has demonstrated that by blocking receptors for acetylcholine on neurons, scopolamine can lift depression in many patients within a few days; conventional antidepressants typically take weeks to work. But not all patients respond, spurring interest in a predictive biomarker.

The acetylcholine system plays a pivotal role in working memory, holding information in mind temporarily, but appears to act by influencing the processing of information rather than through memory. Imaging studies suggest that visual working memory performance can be enhanced by modulating acetylcholine-induced activity in the brain's visual processing area, called the visual cortex, when processing information that is important to the task. Since working memory performance can predict response to conventional antidepressants and ketamine, Furey and colleagues turned to a working memory task and imaging visual cortex activity as potential tools to identify a biomarker for scopolamine response.

Depressed patients have a well-known tendency to process and remember negative emotional information. The researchers propose that this bias stems from dysregulated acetylcholine systems in some patients. They reasoned that such patients would show aberrant visual cortex activity in response to negative emotional features of a working memory task. They also expected to find that patients with more dysfunctional acetylcholine systems would respond better to scopolamine treatment.

Before receiving scopolamine, participants performed a working memory task while their brain activity was monitored via fMRI. For some trials, it required that they pay attention to, and remember, the emotional expression (sad, happy, etc.) of faces flashing on a computer monitor. For other trials, they had to pay attention to only the identity, or non-emotional feature, of the faces. After scanning, and over the following several weeks, 15 patients with depression and 21 healthy participants randomly received infusions of a placebo (salt solution) and/or scopolamine. Mood changes were monitored with depression rating scales.

Overall, scopolamine treatment reduced depression symptoms by 63 percent, with 11 of the patients showing a significant clinical response. The strength of this response correlated significantly with visual cortex activity during key phases of the working memory task while participants were paying attention to the emotional content of the faces. There was no such correlation for trials when they attended to the identity of the faces.

The findings suggest that acetylcholine system activity drives visual cortex activity that predicts treatment response and that differences seen between depressed patients and controls may be traceable to acetylcholine dysfunction. Overall, patients showed lower visual cortex activity than controls during the emotion phase of the task. Patients showing activity levels most dissimilar to controls experienced the greatest antidepressant response to scopolamine treatment. Visual cortex activity in patients who didn't respond to scopolamine more closely resembled that of controls. As hypothesized, the pretreatment level of visual cortex activity appears to reflect the extent of patients' acetylcholine system dysfunction and to predict their response to the experimental medication, say the researchers.

Preliminary evidence suggests that such visual cortex activity in response to emotional stimuli may also apply to other treatments and may prove to be a shared biomarker of rapid antidepressant response, according to Furey.


Contact: Jules Asher
NIH/National Institute of Mental Health

Related biology news :

1. More effective method of imaging proteins
2. High-resolution atomic imaging of specimens in liquid by TEM using graphene liquid cell
3. Trial seeks improved lung-cancer screening by combining imaging and biomarkers
4. Radiologists study necessity of additional imaging recommendations in PET/CT oncologic reports
5. Microcirculation imaging
6. Stanford-SLAC team uses X-ray imaging to observe running batteries in action
7. Imaging study sheds new light on alcohol-related birth defects
8. University of Leicester takes delivery of unique eye imaging equipment
9. Professor publishes on first-ever imaging of cells growing on spherical surfaces
10. 3dMD Transitions Anatomical Research from 3D-Static to 4D-Movement Surface Imaging
11. NREL researchers use imaging technologies to solve puzzle of plant architecture
Post Your Comments:
Related Image:
Imaging biomarker predicts response to rapid antidepressant
(Date:11/9/2015)... ) ... "Global Law Enforcement Biometrics Market 2015-2019" ... ) has announced the addition of ... 2015-2019" report to their offering. ... ) has announced the addition of the ...
(Date:10/29/2015)... LA JOLLA, Calif. , Oct. 29, 2015 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ ... released a new report titled, "DNA Synthesis and Biosecurity: ... how well the Department of Health and Human Services ... was issued in 2010. --> ... advances, but it also has the potential to pose ...
(Date:10/29/2015)... NEW YORK , Oct. 29, 2015 /PRNewswire/ ... wearable technology, announced a partnership with 2XU, a ... accessories, to deliver a smart hat with advanced ... runners and other athletes to monitor key biometrics ... of the strategic partnership, the two companies will bring ...
Breaking Biology News(10 mins):
(Date:11/24/2015)... CITY , Nov. 24, 2015 /PRNewswire/ - ... "Company") announced today that the remaining 11,000 post-share ... Share Purchase Warrants (the "Series B Warrants") subject ... were exercised on November 23, 2015, which will ... Shares.  After giving effect to the issuance of ...
(Date:11/24/2015)... , Nov. 24, 2015 /CNW Telbec/ - ProMetic Life Sciences ... today that Mr. Pierre Laurin , President and Chief ... at the upcoming Piper Jaffray 27 th Annual Healthcare ... on December 1-2, 2015. st , at ... one-on-one meetings throughout the day. The presentation will be available ...
(Date:11/24/2015)... ... November 24, 2015 , ... Whitehouse Laboratories is pleased to announce that ... facility will be strictly dedicated to basic USP 61, USP 62 and USP 51 ... to have complete chemistry and micro testing performed by one supplier. Management ...
(Date:11/23/2015)... ... November 23, 2015 , ... Shimadzu Corporation announces ... Nexera UC Unified Chromatography system. The award from R&D magazine recognizes Shimadzu’s Nexera ... the year in the analytical and testing category. R&D Magazine chose the Nexera ...
Breaking Biology Technology: