"Utilizing stem cell technology, we were able to study a devastating condition to better understand what causes the diabetes symptoms as well as discover possible new drug targets," said Susan L. Solomon, Co-Founder and Chief Executive Officer of The New York Stem Cell Foundation.
"This report highlights again the utility of close examination of rare human disorders as a path to elucidating more common ones," said co-author Rudolph L. Leibel, MD, the Christopher J. Murphy Professor of Diabetes Research and co-director of the Naomi Berrie Diabetes Center at CUMC. "Our ability to create functional insulin-producing cells using stem cell techniques on skin cells from patients with Wolfram's syndrome has helped to uncover the role of ER stress in the pathogenesis of diabetes. The use of drugs that reduce such stress may prove useful in the prevention and treatment of diabetes."
Clinicians from the Naomi Berrie Diabetes Center recruited Wolfram syndrome patients to donate a skin sample. All Wolfram patients had childhood-onset diabetes requiring treatment with injected insulin, and all had vision loss. Additional cell lines were obtained from Coriell Institute for Medical Research. The researchers at NYSCF "reprogrammed," or reverted, the skin cells to an embryonic-like state to become iPS cells. An iPS cell line generated from a healthy individual was used as a normal control.
The researchers differentiated the iPS cells from the Wolfram subjects and the controls into beta cells, an intricate process that took several weeks. They implanted both Wolfram and control iPS cell-derived beta cells under the kidney capsule of immuno-compromised mice. Beta cells from the Wolfram subjects produced less insulin in the culture dish and secreted less insulin into the bloodstream of the mice when they were challenged with high blood-sugar levels.
A key finding was that these beta cells showed elevated markers of ER stress. Treatment with 4-p
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New York Stem Cell Foundation