Using the CALHM1 knockout mice, team members from Monell and Feinstein tested how their taste was affected. "The mice are very unusual," says Monell's Michael Tordoff, PhD. "Control mice, like humans, lick avidly for sucrose and other sweeteners, and avoid bitter compounds. However, the mice without CALHM1 treat sweeteners and bitter compounds as if they were water. They can't taste them at all."
From all lines of evidence, the team concluded that CALHM1 is an ATP-release channel required for sweet, bitter, and umami taste perception. In addition, they found that CALHM1 was also required for "nontraditional" Polycose, calcium, and aversive high-salt tastes, implying that the deficit displayed in the knockout animals might best be considered as a loss of all GPCR-mediated taste signals rather than simply sweet, bitter and umami taste.
Interestingly, CALHM1 was originally implicated in Alzheimer's disease, although the link is now less clear. In 2008, co-author Marambaud identified CALHM1 as a risk gene for Alzheimer's. They discovered that a CALHM1 genetic variant was more common among people with Alzheimer's and they went on to show that it leads to a partial loss of function. They also found that this novel ion channel is strongly expressed in the hippocampus, a brain region necessary for learning and memory. So far, there is no connection between taste perception and Alzheimer's risk, but Marambaud suspects that scientists will start testing this hypothesis.
|Contact: Karen Kreeger|
University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine