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How plants make cocaine
Date:6/8/2012

This press release is available in German.

Humans encounter alkaloids every day

Alkaloids constitute a very large group of natural nitrogen-containing compounds with diverse effects on the human organism. A large variety of plant-produced alkaloids have strong pharmacological effects, and are used as toxins, stimulants, pharmaceuticals or recreational drugs, including caffeine, nicotine, morphine, quinine, strychnine, atropine and cocaine. Atropine, used to dilate the pupils of the eye, and the addictive drug cocaine are both tropane alkaloids which possess two distinctive, inter-connecting five- and seven-membered rings.

Plants commonly produce tropane and other alkaloids for protection against herbivores and other enemies. Species in seven plant families are known to produce tropane alkaloids, including the Brassicaceae (mustard family), Solanaceae (nightshade or potato family) and Erythroxylaceae (coca family). These families are not closely related to each other. For example, it is assumed that the last common ancestor of the Erythroxylaceae and the Solanaceae lived about 120 million years ago. But how similar are the tropane alkaloid biosynthetic pathways in these families? Was there a single original tropane alkaloid pathway which was lost in most other plant families during the course of evolution? Or, did tropane alkaloid biosynthesis arise independently on several different occasions?

Atropine and cocaine: Two tropane alkaloids, two plant species, two different enzymes

John D'Auria, project leader in the Department of Biochemistry at the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology, has been studying the coca plant, from which the drug cocaine is derived. Native tribes in South America have been cultivating coca and chewing its leaves for at least 8000 years for their stimulant and hunger-suppressing properti
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Contact: John C. D'Auria
dauria@ice.mpg.de
49-364-157-1335
Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology
Source:Eurekalert  

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